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  • Author or Editor: Arthur B. Angulo x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for an enhanced direct-fecal PCR procedure, bacterial culture of feces (BCF), and a serum ELISA for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in adult dairy cattle.

Sample Population—Fecal and serum samples were collected from 669 adult cattle randomly selected from a 4,000-cow dairy herd known to contain animals infected with MAP.

Procedures—Serum samples were evaluated for MAP-specific antibodies via ELISA. Fecal samples were evaluated by BCF and enhanced PCR methods (both gel-based [GB]-PCR and quantitative real-time [qRT]-PCR assays). Fecal samples also were pooled (5:1) and then subjected to GB-PCR assay. Bayesian statistical methods were used to estimate Se and Sp for each diagnostic test without knowledge concerning true MAP infection status.

Results—Adjusting for Se conditional dependence between serum ELISA and BCR, overall Se and Sp were estimated at 33.7% and 95.9%, 51.3% and 99.0%, and 32.2% and 100% for serum ELISA, qRT-PCR, and BCF, respectively.The GB-PCR assay yielded positive results for 38.3% of the pools known to contain feces from at least 1 cow that had positive GBPCR results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Estimated Se values for the serum ELISA and BCF were slightly lower than those reported elsewhere. The enhanced qRT-PCR method offered relative improvements in Se of 52% and 59% over serum ELISA and microbial culture, respectively. Pooling of fecal samples and testing with the GB-PCR assay are not recommended. Additional studies with qRT-PCR and fecal pools are required.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the sensitivity and specificity of 5 serologic assays used to diagnose Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals and to determine whether any of the assays could be used to identify affected foals prior to the onset of clinical signs or to differentiate between affected and unaffected foals when clinical signs first become apparent.

Design—Nested case-control study.

Animals—26 foals.

Procedure—Serum samples were obtained from all foals at 2, 4, and 6 or 7 weeks of age. Additional samples were obtained from affected foals at the time of diagnosis of R equi pneumonia and from agematched unaffected foals. Samples were tested with 3 ELISA, an agar gel immunodiffusion assay, and a synergistic hemolysis inhibition assay.

Results—Sensitivity and specificity data indicated that none of the assays could be used to reliably differentiate affected from unaffected foals at any testing period. Proportions of foals that had an increase in test values between paired samples collected at 4 and 6 or 7 weeks of age were not significantly different between affected and unaffected foals. For all assays, result values increased significantly over time; however, the rate of increase was not significantly different between affected and unaffected foals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that serologic assays, whether performed on single or paired samples, cannot be used to reliably establish, confirm, or exclude a diagnosis of R equi pneumonia in foals. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:825–833)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association