Objective—To evaluate the use of simultaneous fluoroscopic and transthoracic echocardiographic guidance during transarterial coil placement for embolization of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in dogs.
Animals—3 dogs with PDA.
Procedure—Each dog was anesthetized, and a femoral artery was exposed for vascular access. By use of an introducer, a catheter was placed in the thoracic portion of the descending aorta with fluoroscopic guidance, and subsequently, a bolus of iodinated radiographic contrast material was injected to outline the ductus. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 1 coil was positioned in the ductus, but not released. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to ensure that 1 loop of the coil was located in the pulmonary artery. When > 1 loop or no loops were detected in the pulmonary artery, the coil was retrieved and repositioned; when 1 loop of the coil was detected in the pulmonary artery, the coil was detached. After catheter removal, the femoral artery was ligated and the wound was closed.
Results—In all 3 dogs, successful embolization of the PDA was achieved. Echocardiography prevented unintentional pulmonary artery embolization in 1 dog and suboptimal coil placement in the other 2 dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In addition to fluoroscopic control, transthoracic echocardiography appears to aid the appropriate positioning of a transarterial coil for treatment of PDA in dogs. Although transesophageal echocardiography would likely provide better images of the ductus, transthoracic echocardiography is a much cheaper, less specialized, and more widely available alternative.
Objective—To evaluate the role of the phospholamban
gene in purebred large-breed dogs with dilated
Animals—6 dogs with DCM, including 2 Doberman
Pinschers, 2 Newfoundlands, and 2 Great Danes.
Procedure—All dogs had clinical signs of congestive
heart failure, and a diagnosis of DCM was made on
the basis of echocardiographic findings. Blood samples
were collected from each dog, and genomic
DNA was isolated by a salt extraction method.
Specific oligonucleotides were designed to amplify
the promoter, exon 1, the 5'-part of exon 2 including
the complete coding region, and part of intron 1 of the
canine phospholamban gene via polymerase chain
reaction procedures. These regions were screened
for mutations in DNA obtained from the 6 dogs with
Results—No mutations were identified in the promoter,
5' untranslated region, part of intron 1, part of
the 3' untranslated region, and the complete coding
region of the phospholamban gene in dogs with
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate
that mutations in the phospholamban gene are
not a frequent cause of DCM in Doberman Pinschers,
Newfoundlands, and Great Danes. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:432–436)
Objective—To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
Animals—8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight.
Procedures—Blood samples for determination of the pulsatile plasma GH profile were collected from all dogs at 10-minute intervals between 8:00 am and 8:00 pm. Plasma IGF-I concentration was determined in the blood sample collected at 8:00 am.
Results—No significant differences in plasma IGF-I concentrations, basal plasma GH concentration, GH pulse frequency, area under the curve above the zero line and above the baseline for GH, and GH pulse amplitude were found between dogs with DCM and control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results did not provide evidence for an association between DCM in dogs and a reduction in plasma concentrations of GH or IGF-I. Therefore, reported positive effects of GH administration are most likely attributable to local effects in the heart.