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  • Author or Editor: Arleigh J. Reynolds x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To characterize the postprandial nutrient profiles of exercise-conditioned dogs fed a supplemental carbohydrate and protein bar with or without astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis immediately after exercise.

ANIMALS 34 exercise-conditioned adult Husky-Pointer dogs.

PROCEDURES The study had 2 phases. During phase 1, postprandial plasma glucose concentration was determined for dogs fed a bar containing 25% protein and 18.5% or 37.4% maltodextrin plus dextrin (rapidly digestible carbohydrate; RDC), or dry kibble (30% protein and 0% RDC) immediately after exercise. During phase 2, dogs were exercised for 3 days and fed a bar (25% protein and 37.4% RDC) with (CPA; n = 8) or without (CP; 8) astaxanthin or no bar (control; 8) immediately after exercise. Pre- and postexercise concentrations of plasma biochemical analytes and serum amino acids were determined on days 1 and 3.

RESULTS Phase 1 postexercise glucose concentration was increased when dogs were provided the 37.4% RDC bar, but not 0% or 18.5% RDC. On day 3 of phase 2, the CPA group had the highest pre-exercise triglyceride concentration and significantly less decline in postexercise glucose concentration than did the CP and control groups. Mean glucose concentration for the CP and CPA groups was significantly higher than that for the control group between 15 and 60 minutes after bar consumption. Compared to immediately after exercise, branched-chain amino acid, tryptophan, leucine, and threonine concentrations 15 minutes after exercise were significantly higher for the CP and CPA groups, but were lower for the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dogs fed a bar with 37.4% RDCs and 25% protein immediately after exercise had increased blood nutrient concentrations for glycogen and protein synthesis, compared with control dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine nitrogen balance in clinically normal dogs receiving parenteral nutrition solutions.

Animals—8 clinically normal female Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 4 treatments in random order. Treatment A consisted of IV administration of nonlactated Ringer's solution. Treatments B, C, and D consisted of IV administration of isocaloric parenteral solutions containing 0, 1.36, and 2.04 g of amino acids/kg of body weight/d, respectively, for 7 consecutive days. Urine and feces were collected on days 5, 6, and 7 of each treatment period, and Kjeldahl analysis was used to determine nitrogen balance.

Results—Mean nitrogen balance was negative with treatments A and B but was not significantly different from 0 with treatments C and D. Dogs had the lowest nitrogen balance values and lost the most weight while receiving treatment A. Dogs were able to conserve protein and had higher nitrogen balance values when receiving treatment B, compared with treatment A. Dogs lost the least amount of weight while receiving treatment D. Regression analysis indicated that an IV amino acid intake of 2.32 g/kg/d (95% confidence interval, 2.00 to 2.81 g/kg/d), as supplied by the commercial product used in this study, would result in zero nitrogen balance in clinically normal dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that IV amino acid requirement of clinically normal dogs is approximately 2.3 g/kg/d. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:912–920)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research