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  • Author or Editor: Aparecido Antonio Camacho x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate diagnostic testing that could be used to establish an early diagnosis of cardiotoxicosis induced by long-term administration of doxorubicin.

Animals—13 adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—7 dogs were administered doxorubicin chloride (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d for 168 days [cumulative dose, 240 mg/m2]), and 6 dogs received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5 mL, IV, q 21 d for 168 days; control group). Echocardiography, ECG, arterial blood pressure, plasma renin activity (PRA), and plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were assessed before each subsequent administration of doxorubicin and saline solution.

Results—Dogs that received doxorubicin had a significant decrease in R-wave amplitude, compared with values for the control group, from 30 to 210 mg/m2. Doxorubicin-treated dogs had decreases in fractional shortening and left ventricular ejection fraction evident as early as 30 mg/m2, but significant differences between groups were not detected until 90 mg/m2was reached. There was also a significant increase in PRA (≥ 120 mg/m2) and left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic dimensions (≥ 60 and ≥ 180 mg/m2, respectively). Systemic arterial pressure, remaining echocardiographic variables, and concentrations of norepinephrine and BNP had significant variations, but of no clinical importance, during doxorubicin administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Doxorubicininduced cardiotoxicosis developed at 120 mg/m2, but there were no clinical signs of dilated cardiomyopathy or congestive heart failure. Echocardiography and determination of PRA were able to detect early cardiac alterations during the development of dilated cardiomyopathy, despite apparently differing degrees of sensitivity to development of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicosis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of reducing the diameter of the left ventricle of dogs by plication of the left ventricular free wall.

Animals—8 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Left lateral thoracotomy and a T-shaped pericardiotomy were performed. The free wall of the left ventricle was imbricated with 3 interrupted transfixing sutures applied in a horizontal mattress pattern, using 3-0 polypropylene suture assembled on a straight cutting needle. Surgeons were careful to avoid the coronary vessels. Echocardiography was performed 24 hours before and 48 hours after surgery. Electrocardiography was performed before and 1, 2, 7, 15, 21, 30, and 60 days after surgery.

Results—Echocardiographic measurements revealed that the diameter of the left ventricle was reduced by a mean of 23.5%. Electrocardiography revealed ventricular premature complexes 24 hours after surgery that regressed without treatment during the first week after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plication of the left ventricular free wall of dogs can reduce enddiastolic and end-systolic dimensions of the left ventricle. The technique is simple and does not require cardiopulmonary bypass. According to Laplace's law, the reduction of cardiac diameter leads to reduction on free-wall tension and may improve left ventricular function in dilatated hearts. Thus, additional studies involving dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy should be conducted. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:297–300)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether the lactate threshold of dogs could be determined by a visual method and to assess the extent of agreement and bias among treadmill velocities for the lactate threshold as determined by visual (LTv) and polynomial (LTp) methods, glucose threshold as determined by visual (GTv) and polynomial (GTp) methods, and heart rate deflection point (HRdp) as a method for estimating the aerobic capacity of dogs.

ANIMALS 18 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES Each dog underwent a standardized incremental treadmill exercise test once. The test ended when the dog began to show signs of fatigue. Plasma lactate and glucose concentrations and heart rate (HR) were plotted against exercise intensity (treadmill velocity) for the duration of the test, and the LTv, GTv, and HRdp were determined visually. The LTp and GTp were determined by means of a second-order polynomial function. One-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, Bland-Altman analyses, and ordinary least products regression were used to assess the extent of agreement and bias among the various threshold velocities.

RESULTS Mean velocity did not differ significantly among the thresholds evaluated. There was a strong positive correlation between the LTv velocity and the velocity for GTv (r = 0.91), LTp (r = 0.96), GTp (r = 0.94), and HRdp (r = 0.95).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that LTv could be determined for dogs undergoing intense exercise on a treadmill, and the treadmill velocity corresponding to the LTv was associated with the velocity for the other hallmarks of endurance. Thus, that method may be useful for prescription and evaluation of conditioning programs for dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research