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  • Author or Editor: Antonello Bufalari x
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of 2 tidal volumes (TVs) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on lung mechanics, aeration, and gas exchange in healthy anesthetized dogs.

ANIMALS 40 mixed-breed dogs with healthy lungs.

PROCEDURES Anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10/group) with different ventilatory settings: TV of 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 0 cm H2O (low TV group), TV of 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H2O (low TV plus PEEP group), TV of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 0 cm H2O (high TV group), or TV of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H2O (high TV plus PEEP group). Expired CO2 and respiratory rate were titrated on the basis of a predetermined stepwise protocol. Gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, and pulmonary aeration were evaluated by means of CT 30 minutes after starting mechanical ventilation at the assigned setting.

RESULTS Partial pressures of arterial and expired CO2 were higher in the low TV and low TV plus PEEP groups than in the high TV and high TV plus PEEP groups. Peak and plateau airway pressures were higher in the PEEP group than in the other groups. Static lung compliance was higher in the high TV plus PEEP group than in the low TV group. Relative percentages of atelectatic and poorly aerated lung were lower in the high TV plus PEEP group than in the other groups. Oxygenation was similar among groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Differences in TV and PEEP application during mechanical ventilation may affect respiratory function in anesthetized dogs with healthy lungs. Ventilation with a TV of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H2O significantly improved lung compliance and reduced the amount of atelectatic and poorly aerated lung.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To describe ultrasonographic findings and outcomes for dogs with suspected migrating intrathoracic grass awns.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 43 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Records for dogs with suspected migrating intrathoracic grass awns examined between 2010 and 2013 were reviewed. Ultrasonographic images and additional information such as signalment and pleural fluid analysis, radiographic, bronchoscopic, and CT findings were collected. Surgical treatments and outcomes were also reviewed.

RESULTS Transthoracic or transesophageal ultrasonography revealed grass awns in the pleural space (n = 13) or pulmonary parenchyma (10) of 23 dogs. Surgical removal of grass awns was successful on the first attempt in 21 of these 23 dogs (including 11/23 that had intraoperative ultrasonography performed to aid localization and removal of the awn). In the remaining 2 dogs, a second surgery was required. Twenty dogs with evidence of migrating intrathoracic grass awns had no foreign body identified on initial ultrasonographic evaluation and were treated medically; 16 developed draining fistulas, and awns identified ultrasonographically at follow-up visits were subsequently removed from the sublumbar region (n = 10) or thoracic wall (6). The remaining 4 dogs had no grass awn visualized. Clinical signs resolved in all dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Transthoracic, transesophageal, and intraoperative ultrasonography were useful for localization and removal of migrating intrathoracic grass awns. Ultrasonography may be considered a valuable and readily available diagnostic tool for monitoring dogs with suspected migrating intrathoracic grass awns.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare the dose-sparing effect of medetomidine on the propofol induction dose and concentration of halothane for maintenance of anesthesia during laparoscopy and to provide guidelines for effective and safe use of these anesthetics in dogs to ensure desirable perioperative analgesia.


14 purpose-bred dogs.


Cardiopulmonary and electroencephalographic responses were determined during 2 anesthesia protocols in dogs scheduled for laparoscopy. Fifteen minutes before anesthesia induction, all dogs received atropine sulfate (0.02 mg/kg of body weight, IM). Seven dogs were then given propofol (6.6 mg/kg, IV); anesthesia was maintained with halothane in oxygen. The other dogs were given medetomidine hydrochloride (10 μg/kg, IM) 5 minutes after administration of atropine sulfate; anesthesia was then induced by administration of propofol (2.8 mg/kg, IV) and was maintained with halothane in oxygen.


The halothane concentration required for laparoscopy was lower in dogs given medetomidine. Anesthetic requirements were significantly increased during abdominal manipulation in both groups. Total amplitude of the electroencephalograph in medetomidine-treated dogs was not significantly lower than that in dogs not given medetomidine. Pulmonary responses were stable throughout all procedures. The primary cardiovascular response was an increase in blood pressure associated with the medetomidine-atropine preanesthetic combination. Significant differences in total amplitude or frequency shifts (spectral edge) of brain wave activity were not associated with surgical stimulation.


Lack of neurologic changes during laparoscopy supports the efficacy of either medetomidine-propofol-halothane or propofol-halothane combinations at higher concentrations to provide desirable analgesia and anesthesia in this group of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1443–1450)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research