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To evaluate the level of agreement (LOA) between direct and oscillometric blood pressure (BP) measurements and the ability of oscillometric measurements to accurately detect hypotension in anesthetized chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).


8 captive, adult chimpanzees.


During prescheduled annual examinations, each chimpanzee underwent general anesthesia and patient monitoring for their examination, echocardiography for a concurrent study, and measurement of direct BP with the use of tibial artery catheterization and oscillometry with the use of a cuff placed around a brachium and a cuff placed around the second digit of the contralateral forelimb for the present study. Bland-Altman plots were generated to compare results for direct and oscillometric BP measurements. Mean bias and 95% LOAs were calculated for oscillometric measurements of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) for each cuff site. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting hypotension were also determined for each cuff site.


There were 74 paired direct and brachial oscillometric measurements of each, SAP, MAP, and DAP and 66 paired direct and digit oscillometric measurements of each, SAP, MAP, and DAP. Only brachial oscillometric measurements of MAP had adequate sensitivity (78%) and specificity (95%) to accurately detect hypotension, and this technique also had the least mean bias (0.8 mm Hg; 95% LOA, –29 to 31 mm Hg).


Results indicated that brachial oscillometric measurement of MAP provided reasonable agreement with tibial arterial direct MAP measurement and performed well in diagnosing hypotension in anesthetized chimpanzees.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe the prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection and evaluate factors associated with positive IgM capture ELISA results in equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—Laboratory submission forms from 1,104 equids tested for WNV in Colorado in 2003.

Procedures—Submission forms accompanying samples submitted for detection of WNV via IgM capture ELISA were obtained from the Colorado state veterinarian and diagnostic laboratories performing the tests. Data on signalment, clinical signs, history of vaccination against WNV, and assay results were collected from laboratory submission forms. Equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection in which IgM capture ELISA results were positive were considered as case equids.

Results—1,104 equids were tested for WNV; 1,017 (92.1%) had clinical signs compatible with WNV infection. Among equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection, the odds of testing positive for WNV via IgM capture ELISA were lower in males and in vaccinated equids and higher in equids with moderate and severe illness, compared with females, unvaccinated equids, and equids with mild illness.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection, vaccination against WNV, severity of clinical signs, duration of illness, and region in Colorado were associated with increased risk of having a positive IgM capture ELISA result.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association