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  • Author or Editor: Anthony J. Mutsaers x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness of metronomic cyclophosphamide (MC) chemotherapy (primary treatment of interest) with adjuvant meloxicam administration as maintenance treatment for dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma following limb amputation and carboplatin chemotherapy.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study.

ANIMALS 39 dogs with a histologic diagnosis of appendicular osteosarcoma that underwent limb amputation and completed carboplatin chemotherapy from January 2011 through December 2015.

PROCEDURES Dogs were grouped by whether carboplatin chemotherapy had been followed with or without MC chemotherapy (15 mg/m2, PO, q 24 h) and meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). The Breslow rank test was used to assess whether MC chemotherapy was associated with overall survival time (OST) and disease progression-free time (PFT) after limb amputation.

RESULTS 19 dogs received carboplatin and MC chemotherapy, and 20 dogs received only carboplatin chemotherapy. No differences were identified between these groups regarding age, reproductive status, body weight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, tumor location, or histologic grade or subtype of osteosarcoma. Median duration of MC chemotherapy for dogs in the carboplatin-MC group was 94 days (range, 7 to 586 days); this treatment was discontinued for 11 (58%) dogs when cystitis developed. Overall, 11 (28%) dogs survived to the time of analysis, for a median follow-up period of 450 days (range, 204 to 1,400 days). No difference in median PFT or OST was identified between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maintenance MC chemotherapy following limb amputation and completed carboplatin chemotherapy was associated with no increase in PFT or OST in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Cystitis was common in MC-treated dogs, and prophylactic treatment such as furosemide administration could be considered to reduce the incidence of cystitis in such dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the antitumor and toxic effects of treatment with doxorubicin combined with piroxicam or doxorubicin alone for multicentric lymphoma in dogs.

Design—Nonrandomized clinical trial.

Animals—75 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

Procedure—33 dogs were treated with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h); results were compared with a historical control group of 42 dogs treated with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) alone.

Results—The percentages of dogs that had remission with doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment (79%) or doxorubicin treatment alone (74%) were not significantly different. Median duration of first remission was 130 days with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 147 days with doxorubicin alone; these values were not significantly different. Severe toxicosis was observed in 22% of dogs treated with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 17% of dogs treated with doxorubicin alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both treatment protocols were efficacious and well tolerated. The doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment was no more effective regarding response rate, remission duration, or survival duration, compared with the control group treated with doxorubicin alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1813–1817)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of IV diphenhydramine hydrochloride administration on cardiorespiratory variables in anesthetized dogs undergoing mast cell tumor (MCT) excision.

DESIGN Randomized, blinded clinical trial.

ANIMALS 16 client-owned dogs with MCTs.

PROCEDURES In a standardized isoflurane anesthesia session that included mechanical ventilation, dogs received diphenhydramine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IV; n = 8) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IV; control treatment; 8) 10 minutes after induction. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded throughout anesthesia and MCT excision, and blood samples for determination of plasma diphenhydramine and histamine concentrations were collected prior to premedication (baseline), throughout anesthesia, and 2 hours after extubation.

RESULTS Cardiorespiratory values in both treatment groups were acceptable for anesthetized dogs. Mean ± SD diastolic arterial blood pressure was significantly lower in the diphenhydramine versus control group during tumor dissection (52 ± 10 mm Hg vs 62 ± 9 mm Hg) and surgical closure (51 ± 10 mm Hg vs 65 ± 9 mm Hg). Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lower in the diphenhydramine versus control group during surgical closure (65 ± 12 mm Hg vs 78 ± 11 mm Hg), despite a higher cardiac index value. Plasma histamine concentrations were nonsignificantly higher than baseline during maximal manipulation of the tumor and surgical preparation in the diphenhydramine group and during surgical dissection in the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE IV administration of diphenhydramine prior to MCT excision had no clear clinical cardiorespiratory benefits over placebo in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin administered with piroxicam, the antitumor activity and toxicity of cisplatin combined with piroxicam in dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and the effects of piroxicam on the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in dogs with tumors.

Design—Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial.

Animals—25 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were treated with a combination of cisplatin (escalating dose with 6 hours of diuresis with saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). The initial cisplatin dose (50 mg/m2) was increased by 5 mg/m2 until the MTD was reached. Tumor stage and size were determined at 6-week intervals during treatment. The pharmacokinetics of cisplatin were determined in dogs receiving a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam during the clinical trial and dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone.

Results—11 dogs with OMM and 9 dogs with SCC were included in the clinical trial. The MTD of cisplatin when administered in combination with piroxicam was 50 mg/m2. Tumor remission occurred in 5 of 9 dogs with SCC and 2 of 11 dogs with OMM. The most common abnormality observed was renal toxicosis. Clearance of cisplatin in dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone was not significantly different from that in dogs treated with a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cisplatin administered in combination with piroxicam had antitumor activity against OMM and SCC. The level of toxicity was acceptable, although renal function must be monitored carefully. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:388–394)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association