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  • Author or Editor: Anthony J. Cerreta x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the environmental persistence of Nannizziopsis guarroi on clinically relevant solid and aqueous substrates.

SAMPLE

2 molecularly confirmed isolates of N guarroi obtained from clinical cases of dermatomycosis in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

PROCEDURES

3 concentrations (1 McFarland, 1:10 McFarland, and 1:100 McFarland) of fungal suspension were exposed to 7 sterilized solid substrates (fabric aquarium liner, wood mulch, sand, hard plastic, glass, cotton, and stainless steel) and 2 sterilized aqueous substrates (distilled water, saline solution [0.9% NaCl]). Biological replicates were performed for the contamination of the solid substrates. On days 1, 3, and 14 after contamination, the substrates were sampled for fungal culture with technical repeat. Fungal cultures were incubated at room temperature for 10 days and then evaluated for fungal growth.

RESULTS

Data from wood mulch were not evaluated because of plate contamination. Overall, the ability to culture N guarroi from solid substrates was isolate, time, and fungal concentration dependent. Viable fungus was isolated from fabric aquarium liner and glass on day 1 and days 1 and 3, respectively. N guarroi was cultured from all other solid substrates at day 14 from at least 1 isolate and/or fungal concentration. Viable N guarroi was isolated from both aqueous substrates at day 14, regardless of isolate or fungal concentration.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The environmental persistence of N guarroi should be considered when treating lizards infected with this fungus. Fomites may contribute to the contagious nature of this pathogen and environmental disinfection should be performed to reduce transmission.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To document the clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of urolithiasis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and to report on the composition of uroliths from green iguanas submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center for analysis.

ANIMALS

21 green iguanas with urolithiasis.

PROCEDURES

Medical record databases of multiple veterinary teaching hospitals were searched from 1996 through 2020. Emails were sent to all facilities that submitted a urolith from a green iguana to the Minnesota Urolith Center from 1996 through 2020. Signalment; presenting complaint; physical examination findings; hematologic, biochemical, and diagnostic imaging findings; treatment; necropsy results; and survival times were described for each patient.

RESULTS

Iguanas most commonly presented with nonspecific clinical signs, but 9 of the 21 iguanas had clinical signs associated with the urogenital tract. Twelve iguanas had a palpable mass in the caudal coelom. All uroliths were visible on radiographs. Surgery was performed on 15 iguanas; 3 died secondary to intra- or postoperative complications. Iguanas that underwent surgery had a median survival time of 39 months. Necropsy was performed on 5 iguanas, and urolithiasis contributed to the decision to euthanize or was the cause of death for 4. Uroliths from 132 iguanas were analyzed, and all were composed of 100% uric acid salts.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Green iguanas with urolithiasis may not have clinical signs or physical examination findings associated with the urinary system, and hematologic and biochemical abnormalities are nonspecific. Green iguanas should be routinely examined for uroliths, and surgical treatment should be pursued.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered to western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) via oral gavage and bioencapsulated in earthworms.

ANIMALS

7 western pond turtles.

PROCEDURES

A randomized complete crossover single-dose pharmacokinetic study was performed. Compounded terbinafine (25 mg/mL; 30 mg/kg) was administered through oral gavage (OG) directly into the stomach or bioencapsulated (BEC) into an earthworm vehicle. Blood (0.2 mL) was drawn from the jugular vein at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after administration. Plasma terbinafine levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography.

RESULTS

Peak plasma terbinafine concentrations of 786.9 ± 911 ng/mL and 1,022.2 ± 911 were measured at 1.8 ± 2.8 and 14.1 ± 12.3 hours after OG and BEC administration, respectively. There was a significant (P = .031) increase in area under the curve with BEC compared to OG. Using steady-state predictions, with once-daily terbinafine administration, 3/7 and 7/7 turtles had plasma concentrations persistently greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Emydomyces testavorans for the OG and BEC administration routes of administration, respectively. With administration every 48 hours, 3/7 turtles for the OG phase and 6/7 turtles for the BEC phase had concentrations greater than the E. testavorans MIC throughout the entire dosing interval.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Administration of terbinafine (30 mg/kg) every 24 or 48 hours via earthworm bioencapsulation in western pond turtles may be appropriate for the treatment of shell lesions caused by E. testavorans. Clinical studies are needed to assess the efficacy of treatment.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research