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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

  • Colonic adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor of glandular crypt epithelium in middle-aged and older horses; the tumor may metastasize to the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and lungs, but it has not been reported to metastasize to bone and muscle.

  • Clinical signs of abdominal neoplasia may be vague and nonspecific; extensive diagnostic testing of these animals often is required.

  • Radionucleotide imaging, using technetium Tc 99m hydroxymethylene diphosphate in conjunction with technetium Tc 99m hexamethylpropylenamine oxime, can be a sensitive noninvasive tool to identify the nature of a disseminated disease when radiography is not sensitive enough to detect early osteoblastic changes that precede morphologic changes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhil-2) was evaluated for its influence on total and differential wbc counts, lymphocyte blastogenic responsiveness to mitogens, and several measurements of neutrophil function in clinically normal and in dexamethasone-treated cattle. A single dose of rhil-2 (2.5 × 107 U) given sc had no influence on the total or differential wbc count; however, it did cause an inhibition of neutrophil random migration. The other measurements of neutrophil function (Staphylococcus aureus ingestion, cytochrome C reduction, iodination, and antibody-dependent and antibody-independent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) evaluated were not significantly altered. The rhil-2 treatment was associated with a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in uptake of [3H]thymidine in unstimulated lymphocytes and a tendency toward enhanced blastogenesis of lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin. This enhancement was significant (P < 0.05) only when the results were expressed as a stimulation index. Lymphocyte responsiveness to concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen was not significantly influenced by rhil-2 administration. Dexamethasone (0.04 mg/kg) administered every 24 hours for 3 consecutive days altered the wbc count and several measurements of lymphocyte and neutrophil function. The administration of a single dose of rhil-2 (2.5 × 107 U) 8 hours after the first dose of dexamethasone did not alter the influence of dexamethasone on any of the measurements. These results indicated that rhil-2 has some biologic activity in cattle, but when used as administered here, did not overcome the influence of dexamethasone on the in vitro measurements of lymphocyte and neutrophil function that were evaluated.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

To provide long-term gastric fistulas for collection of third-compartment gastric contents, Janeway mucosal tube gastrostomy was performed, using a gastrointestinal stapling instrument, in 6 castrated adult male llamas. Mean operative time (±sem) was 65 ±4.16 minutes. All llamas survived the 6-week study period. Of the 6 llamas, 5 did not have signs of abdominal pain and returned to preoperative food consumption amounts within 36 hours. One llama had mild intermittent signs of abdominal pain daily for 7 days before returning to preoperative amount of food consumption. All gastrostomies leaked small amounts of gastric contents around indwelling 6- to 8-mm cannulas at the skin surface. Gastric contents did not leak when cannulas were dislodged from gastrostomy stomas. Replacement of cannulas was rapid and easy. Gravity-flow sample collection was best accomplished through 8-mm cannulas. Mean (±sem) weight loss was detected in all llamas (15 ± 3 kg) and was associated with frequent nonfeeding and stress of sample collection.

Gross necropsy findings were unremarkable in 5 of 6 llamas. All mucosal tube gastrostomies were patent, and there was no evidence of peritonitis. One llama had a single fibrous adhesion connecting the operative site with the ascending colon. Histologically, small (2.5- to 15-mm diameter) partial-thickness mucosal erosions identified at the tube gastrostomy-gastric wall junctions may have been associated with indwelling gastric cannulas. The Janeway gastrostomy was generally well tolerated in the llamas and should be considered as a useful long-term fistulation technique.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Administration of an N-lauroylsarcosine-derived outer membrane protein fraction of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 (sci-1) induced a protective response in calves against intrathoracic challenge exposure with the homologous serovar. Outer membrane proteins from heterologous serovars, A6 and A9, induced partial protection that was associated with their respective similarities to serovar A1 in outer membrane protein profiles derived by use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Calves vaccinated with sci preparations did not have detectable neutralizing antibody to P haemolytica A1 leukotoxin. Antibodies to whole-cell antigens, carbohydrate-protein subunit antigen, and sci-1 were associated with resistance, which indicates that protein antigens shared among cell surface, carbohydrate-protein subunit, and sci preparations are immunogenic and enhance resistance to experimental challenge exposure.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research