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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate patterns of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test results for dogs with retrobulbar abscesses and generate recommendations for empirical antimicrobial selection.

ANIMALS

133 dogs examined between 2002 and 2019.

PROCEDURES

Records were retrospectively reviewed to determine type of bacterial culture, number and type of bacterial isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility test results, concurrent and recent antimicrobial exposure, effect of culture results on antimicrobial regimen, and outcome.

RESULTS

Aerobic culture alone was performed in 37 dogs, and aerobic and anaerobic culture was performed in 96 dogs. Isolates were recovered from 96 dogs, with multiple isolates recovered from 54 (56%) of those dogs. Of the 69 dogs for which both aerobic and anaerobic culture was performed and at least 1 isolate was obtained, 34 (49%) had purely aerobic infections, 15 (22%) had mixed aerobic and anaerobic infections, and 20 (29%) had purely anaerobic infections. Pasteurella spp (n = 26), Streptococcus spp (20), and Escherichia coli (12) were the most common aerobic isolates. Bacteroides spp (n = 22), Actinomyces spp (10), and Fusobacterium (10) spp were the most common anaerobic isolates. Susceptibility test results led to changes in the antimicrobial regimen in 37 of 80 (46%) dogs. Of the 76 dogs for which outcome information was available, 78 (97%) recovered.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Multipathogen and anaerobic infections were common in dogs with retrobulbar abscesses. Susceptibility data supported the use of amoxicillin-clavulanate or a combination of clindamycin and enrofloxacin as first-line treatments. Additional study is needed to characterize anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibilities and to compare results of susceptibility testing with in vivo responses to antimicrobial administration.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the utility of abdominal ultrasonography (AUS) to detect grossly evident masses in dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen.

ANIMALS

94 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Electronic medical records from 2014 to 2017 were searched to identify dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen that had an AUS performed by a radiologist and subsequently underwent gross evaluation by surgery or necropsy. Ultrasonography, surgery, and histology reports were reviewed, and descriptive statistics were performed. Sensitivity of ultrasonography to detect grossly identifiable masses was calculated.

RESULTS

Differences were identified between AUS and surgical or necropsy findings for 51 of 94 (54%) dogs. Splenic masses were most commonly identified as the cause of hemoabdomen. Sensitivity of AUS was 87.4%, 37.3%, and 31.3% for masses in the spleen, liver, and mesentery, respectively. Five dogs had more lesions identified with AUS than were found on gross evaluation; 0 of 6 dogs with peritoneal diffuse nodular metastasis had lesions detected by AUS.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In this sample of dogs, the utility of AUS to detect grossly identifiable lesions in dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen was limited, with the highest and lowest sensitivity found for splenic masses and diffuse nodular metastasis, respectively.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine if prazosin administration decreased the rate of recurrent urethral obstruction (rUO) before hospital discharge and within 14 days.

ANIMALS

388 cats with urethral obstruction.

PROCEDURES

Veterinarians who either always or never prescribed prazosin (generally, 0.5 to 1 mg, PO, q 12 h for 14 days) were recruited to complete observational surveys. Patient data and characteristics of relieving the obstruction, including perception of a gritty feel within urethra or difficulty unobstructing the cat, were recorded. The rate of development of rUO before hospital discharge and by day 14 was compared between cats that received or did not receive prazosin with the Fisher exact test. Other variables were similarly compared between cats with and without rUO.

RESULTS

302 (78%) cats received prazosin, while 86 (22%) did not. There was no association between prazosin administration and risk of rUO prior to discharge, with 34 of 302 (11.3%) cats receiving prazosin and 5 or 86 (5.8%) not receiving prazosin developing rUO. Within 14 days, a significantly higher proportion of prazosin-treated cats (73/302 [24%]) developed an rUO, compared with the proportion of non–prazosin-treated cats (and 11/86 [13%]). The perception of a “gritty feeling urethra” or difficulty of performing the catheterization was associated with increased risk of rUO.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Prazosin administration increased the likelihood of rUO by 14 days; ongoing investigation of other therapies to decrease rUO in cats is warranted. Without specific indications, the use of prazosin for the prevention of rUO should be discouraged.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To gather information about issues associated with pregnancy, lactation, and parenting for US veterinary students and house officers (trainees) and their perception of pregnancy and parenting support services available at US veterinary training institutions.

DESIGN Cross-sectional mixed-method survey.

SAMPLE 2,088 veterinary students and 312 house officers from 27 US veterinary training institutions.

PROCEDURES An email with a link to an online survey was sent to the associate dean for academic affairs at each of the 30 AVMA-accredited US veterinary training institutions with a request that it be forwarded to all veterinary students and house officers (interns and residents).

RESULTS Among the 2,400 respondents, 185 (7.7%) reported that they were a parent, were pregnant, or had a significant other who was pregnant. Several significant differences in attitudes and perceptions of pregnancy and parenting support services provided by veterinary training institutions were identified between males and females, veterinary students and house officers, and respondents who were and were not parents.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided crucial information about an important facet of well-being for veterinary trainees and suggested that veterinary students and house officers face substantial challenges in becoming parents during their training programs and that perceptions of those challenges differ between males and females.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To create antibiograms for commonly cultured organisms in a small animal tertiary care hospital following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines and to compare these local resistance patterns to published first-tier antimicrobial recommendations.

SAMPLE

Urine (n = 429), respiratory (41), and skin (75) isolates cultured from dogs between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020, at the Tufts University Foster Hospital for Small Animals.

PROCEDURES

MIC and susceptibility interpretations were recorded for multiple sites for 2 years. Sites with greater than 30 isolates for at least 1 organism were included. Urinary, respiratory, and skin antibiograms were created using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints and guidelines.

RESULTS

Urinary Escherichia coli had a higher susceptibility percentage for amoxicillin–clavulanate (80% [221/275]) than amoxicillin alone (64% [175/275]). Respiratory E coli were greater than 80% susceptible to only 2 antimicrobials (imipenem, amikacin). Of skin Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates, 40% (30/75) were methicillin-resistant and frequently also displayed resistance to non-beta lactam antimicrobials. Susceptibility to recommended first-line antimicrobials varied and was greatest for gram-negative urinary isolates and lowest for methicillin-resistant S pseudintermedius skin isolates and respiratory E coli.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Local antibiogram creation identified frequent resistance that may preclude the use of guideline-recommended first-line therapy. High levels of resistance identified in methicillin-resistant S pseudintermedius isolates supports growing concern for methicillin-resistant staphylococci in veterinary patients. This project highlights the need for population-specific resistance profiles to be used in conjunction with national guidelines.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association