Objective—To compare, for dogs with intracranial
meningiomas, survival times for dogs treated with
surgical resection followed by radiation therapy with
survival times for dogs treated with surgery alone.
Animals—31 dogs with intracranial meningiomas.
Procedure—Medical records of dogs with histologic
confirmation of an intracranial meningioma were
reviewed. For each dog, signalment, clinical signs,
tumor location, treatment protocol, and survival time
were obtained from the medical record and through
follow-up telephone interviews.
Results—Dogs that underwent tumor resection
alone and survived > 1 week after surgery had a
median survival time of 7 months (range, 0.5 to 22
months). Dogs that underwent tumor resection followed
by radiation therapy had a median survival time
of 16.5 months (range, 3 to 58 months).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in dogs with intracranial meningiomas, use
of radiation therapy as a supplement to tumor resection
can significantly extend life expectancy. (J Am Med Vet Assoc 2002;221:1597–1600)
OBJECTIVE To determine changes in dimensions of feline skin samples as a result of histologic processing and to identify factors that contributed to changes in dimensions of skin samples after sample collection.
SAMPLE Cadavers of 12 clinically normal cats.
PROCEDURES Skin samples were obtained bilaterally from 3 locations (neck, thorax, and tibia) of each cadaver; half of the thoracic samples included underlying muscle. Length, width, and depth were measured at 5 time points (before excision, after excision, after application of ink to mark tissue margins, after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 36 hours, and after completion of histologic processing and staining with H&E stain). Measurements obtained after sample collection were compared with measurements obtained before excision.
RESULTS At the final time point, tissue samples had decreased in length (mean decrease, 32.40%) and width (mean decrease, 34.21%) and increased in depth (mean increase, 54.95%). Tissue from the tibia had the most shrinkage in length and width and that from the neck had the least shrinkage. Inclusion of underlying muscle on thoracic skin samples did not affect the degree of change in dimensions.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, each step during processing from excision to formalin fixation and histologic processing induced changes in tissue dimensions, which were manifested principally as shrinkage in length and width and increase in depth. Most of the changes occured during histologic processing. Inclusion of muscle did not affect thoracic skin shrinkage. Shrinkage should be a consideration when interpreting surgical margins in clinical cases. 945)
A 10-year-old castrated male Shetland Sheepdog was referred for evaluation of a mass in the urinary bladder. The dog had a 1-month history of pollakiuria, stranguria, and hematuria and was initially treated by the referring veterinarian with antimicrobials, which resulted in clinical improvement. Clinical signs returned, and a second course of antimicrobials was instituted with the same results. The dog was reevaluated by the referring veterinarian who performed abdominal ultrasonography, which revealed a large mass in the urinary bladder filling an estimated two thirds of the lumen. At this time, the dog was started on piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14
Objective—To evaluate responses of cats with vaccine-
associated sarcomas to treatment with surgery
and radiotherapy, with or without adjunctive
Animals—76 cats (78 tumors).
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed. Factors
potentially associated with survival time, time to
recurrence, and time to development of metastases
Results—Following excision, electron beam radiation,
and, in some cases, chemotherapy, 32 (41%)
cats experienced recurrence, and 9 (12%) cats developed
metastases. One- and 2-year survival rates
were 86 and 44%, respectively. Median survival time
from onset of disease was 730 days (range, 30 to
2,014 days). Median disease-free interval was 405
days (range, 30 to 925 days). Cats that underwent
only 1 surgery prior to radiotherapy had a lower recurrence
rate than did cats that underwent > 1 surgery
and had a significantly longer disease-free interval.
Survival time and disease-free interval decreased as
time between surgery and the start of radiotherapy
increased. Cats that developed metastases had significantly
shorter survival times and disease-free
intervals than did cats that did not develop metastases.
Castrated male cats had a significantly shorter
survival time than did spayed female cats. Cats with
larger tumors prior to the first surgery had shorter survival
times. Twenty-six cats received chemotherapy in
addition to surgery and radiotherapy. Whether cats
received chemotherapy was not associated with
recurrence rate, metastasis rate, or survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that excision followed by electron beam irradiation
may be beneficial for treatment of cats with vaccine-
associated sarcomas. Extent of excision prior to
radiotherapy did not seem to be associated with
recurrence rate. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1582–1589)
Objective—To assess serum 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone
(17OHP) and corticosterone concentrations in
dogs with nonadrenal neoplasia and dogs being
screened for hyperadrenocorticism.
Animals—16 clinically normal dogs, 35 dogs with
nonadrenal neoplasia, and 127 dogs with suspected
Procedure—ACTH stimulation tests were performed
in all dogs. Baseline serum cortisol and corticosterone
concentrations were measured in the healthy dogs;
baseline serum cortisol concentration and ACTH-stimulated
cortisol, corticosterone, and 17OHP concentrations
were measured in all dogs. Endogenous plasma
ACTH concentration was also measured before
administration of ACTH in dogs with neoplasia.
Results—In 35 dogs with neoplasia, 31.4% had high
serum 17OHP concentration and 22.9% had high
serum corticosterone concentration. Of the 127 dogs
with suspected hyperadrenocorticism, 59 (46.5%) had
high ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations; of those,
42 of 59 (71.2%) and 32 of 53 (60.4%) had high serum
17OHP and corticosterone concentrations, respectively.
Of dogs with serum cortisol concentration within reference
range after ACTH administration, 9 of 68 (13.2%)
and 7 of 67 (10.4%) had high serum 17OHP and corticosterone
concentrations, respectively. In the dogs
with neoplasia and dogs suspected of having hyperadrenocorticism,
post-ACTH serum hormone concentrations
were significantly correlated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum concentrations
of 17OHP or corticosterone after administration
of ACTH may be high in dogs with nonadrenal neoplasia
and no evidence of hyperadrenocorticism. Changes in
serum 17OHP or corticosterone concentrations after
administration of ACTH are proportionate with changes
in cortisol concentration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1762–1767)
Objective—To characterize the biological behavior and prognostic factors associated with hemangiosarcoma in cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—53 cats with hemangiosarcoma.
Procedures—Data were retrieved from a state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, 3 veterinary colleges, and a private practice.
Results—Cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor locations were more common than visceral (abdominal and thoracic) and oral locations. Surgical excision was the primary treatment in 47 cats. Tumor-free surgical margins were more likely in cutaneous than subcutaneous lesions and were associated with longer survival times. Local recurrence was observed in 6 of 12 cats with subcutaneous lesions for which follow-up was available. Metastatic disease was detected in 5 of 13 cats with adequate staging at initial diagnosis. A sixth cat had pulmonary metastases at the time of euthanasia. In 4 of 10 cats with visceral hemangiosarcoma, the diagnosis was made at necropsy or they were euthanized at the time of diagnosis. Adjuvant therapy was uncommonly used. Eighteen of the 21 known deaths or euthanasias were tumor-related. Higher mitotic counts (> 3 in 10 hpfs) were associated with shorter survival times.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma was more biologically aggressive than the cutaneous form and was more likely to recur locally and result in euthanasia or death of the cat. Metastatic potential of the cutaneous and subcutaneous forms may be greater than previously reported. Visceral hemangiosarcoma is associated with a grave prognosis.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of substituting mitoxantrone for doxorubicin in a cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapeutic protocol for first-line treatment of dogs with multicentric intermediate- to large-cell lymphoma.
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 44 dogs treated with cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, vincristine, and prednisone (CMOP) and 51 dogs treated with CHOP at 12 referral institutions.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to determine response to treatment, progression-free survival time, and overall survival time. For dogs treated with CMOP, adverse events were also recorded.
RESULTS All 44 (100%) dogs treated with CMOP and 37 of 38 (97.4%) dogs treated with CHOP had a complete or partial response. Median progression-free survival time for dogs treated with CMOP was 165 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 143 to 187 days), and median overall survival time was 234 days (95% CI, 165 to 303 days). For dogs treated with CHOP, median progression-free survival time was 208 days (95% CI, 122 to 294 days), and median overall survival time was 348 days (95% CI, 287 to 409 days). Progression-free and overall survival times were not significantly different between groups. Overall, 9 of the 44 (20%) dogs treated with CMOP had adverse events likely or probably related to mitoxantrone, but all of these adverse events were mild.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that mitoxantrone may be a reasonable substitution in a CHOP protocol for treatment of dogs with multicentric intermediate- to large-cell lymphoma when doxorubicin is contraindicated.