Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and incidence of seroconversion in alpacas in the United States during 2006 to 2007 and to evaluate associations between BVDV seropositive status and potential risk factors for exposure to BVDV.
Design—Cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study.
Sample—Blood samples from 192 alpacas > 6 months old in 39 herds from 20 states; 40 owners who completed questionnaires.
Procedures—550 US alpaca owners, stratified by state and randomly selected from a list of approximately 4,300 owners, were mailed a study description, voluntary participation request, and questionnaire. Thirty-nine owners submitted blood samples from up to 6 alpacas > 6 months old; 27 of 39 owners submitted another blood sample from the same alpacas > 1 month later. Samples were tested for serum virus-neutralizing antibodies against BVDV. Seropositive status was used to indicate BVDV exposure. Associations between seropositive status and potential risk factors for BVDV exposure described in questionnaires were evaluated by use of a Fisher exact test.
Results—8 of 192 (4.2%) alpacas in 3 of 39 (7.7%) herds were seropositive. Larger herds had a greater percentage of seropositive alpacas than did smaller herds. No alpaca from which a second blood sample was obtained seroconverted during 292 to 1,460 alpaca-days (mean, 740 alpaca-days) of potential exposure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results contributed to information on assessment of BVDV prevalence, risk factors for exposure, and alpaca industry practices in 2006 to 2007 during the emergence of BVDV as a major disease in alpacas.
Objective—To determine the association between
the existence of a calf persistently infected (PI) with
bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and pen morbidity.
Animals—5,041 calves in 50 pens at a feedlot in
Procedure—In a longitudinal study, ear notches were
collected from cattle and tested for BVDV antigen.
Characteristics of each pen (owner, sex, disease rate,
number of groups, and source) were recorded. The
association between the existence of a BVDV–PI calf
and morbidity in each pen was examined.
Results—Commingling was associated with an
increase in respiratory tract disease (odds ratio [OR],
3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 3.6). Ten
BVDV–PI calves (10/5,041 [0.2%]) were identified in 8
of 50 pens. A BVDV–PI calf was associated with
reduced pen-level respiratory tract disease (OR, 0.7;
95% CI, 0.5 to 0.9). Disease prevalence (mean ± SD
morbidity, 7.9 ± 3.1%) was lowest in pens containing
single-source cattle and a BVDV–PI calf (4 pens containing
302 cattle), compared with single-source cattle
with no BVDV–PI calf (mean morbidity, 11.89 ±
9.7%; 31 pens containing 3,093 cattle), commingled
cattle with no BVDV–PI calf (mean morbidity, 29.3 ±
16.22%; 11 pens containing 1,127 cattle), and commingled
cattle with a BVDV–PI calf (mean morbidity,
28.6 ± 10.1%; 4 pens containing 519 cattle).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Commingling
was the greatest risk factor associated with morbidity
in each pen. A BVDV–PI calf in a pen was not associated
with increased disease prevalence in commingled
groups. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2130–2134)
OBJECTIVE To assess the association between a commercially available vaccine against Moraxella bovis and cumulative incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) from processing to weaning (primary objective) and body weight at weaning (secondary objective).
DESIGN Randomized blinded controlled trial.
ANIMALS 214 calves (≥ 2 months of age) born in the spring of 2015 at an Iowa State University cow-calf research unit with no visible lesions or scars on either eye.
PROCEDURES Calves were randomly allocated to receive SC administration of a single dose of a commercial vaccine against M bovis (112 enrolled and 110 analyzed) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (111 enrolled and 104 analyzed). Calves were monitored for signs of IBK from treatment to weaning, and body weight at weaning was recorded. People involved in calf enrollment and outcome assessment were blinded to treatment group assignment. Cumulative incidence of IBK and weaning weight were compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated calves; the effect measure was the risk ratio and mean difference, respectively.
RESULTS IBK was detected in 65 (59.1%) vaccinated calves and 62 (59.6%) unvaccinated calves (unadjusted risk ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.24) during the study period. No significant difference in weaning weights was identified between vaccinated and unvaccinated calves (unadjusted effect size, 4.40 kg [9.68 lb]; 95% confidence interval, −3.46 to 12.25 kg [−7.61 to 26.95 lb]).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the commercially available M bovis vaccine was not effective in reducing the cumulative incidence of IBK or increasing weaning weight in beef calves.
Objective—To evaluate reporting of key study design features and study outcomes in trials of antimicrobial treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in North American feedlots.
Sample Population—29 manuscripts (41 studies) reporting antimicrobial treatment of BRD in North American feedlot cattle.
Procedures—A search of the electronic citation databases AGRICOLA, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, and PubMed was conducted to identify relevant manuscripts published between 1970 and 2005. Key study design features were extracted by 2 reviewers.
Results—12 of 29 (41%) manuscripts did not disclose a funding source, and 21 (72%) had an author clearly identified as an employee of a pharmaceutical company. At the study level, 36 of 41 (88%) studies reported a random method of treatment allocation, 9 (22%) described the method of allocation sequence generation, 20 (49%) reported that study investigators were blinded to treatment, and 3 (7%) included a study size justification. No studies described the null hypothesis to be tested. Thirty-seven (90%) studies reported at least 3 outcomes; the largest number of outcomes reported was 14. It was not possible to conduct the statistical analysis as originally planned because it was not possible to discern the primary outcome for the majority of studies.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many studies did not report key study design features that would assist critical evaluation by readers. It was not clear whether the studies failed to use the design features or failed to report them. Several nondesign features, such as reporting of the null hypothesis, a primary outcome, and sample size rationale, represent relatively new standards for reporting; however, reporting these features would substantially clarify the study objective. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:701-705)
Procedures—Angus calves from 1 farm were evaluated over 7 years. The association between yearling body production traits and detection of IBK lesions at weaning was evaluated.
Results—Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not offset lower body weight at weaning.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The associations between IBK at weaning and production variables persisted well into the postweaning period, and there appeared to be a relationship between decreased body composition traits at yearling evaluation and IBK infection before weaning.
Objective—To describe the prevalence of antibodies against Salmonella spp in swine marketed in Iowa.
Animals—Swine marketed by 1,044 low-volume producers and 45 high-volume producers.
Procedure—Samples of diaphragm muscle collected from swine carcasses were tested by an indirect ELISA based on lipopolysaccharides from Salmonella spp, in particular Salmonella serovar Typhimurium. Prevalence of positive results for antibodies against Salmonella spp for carcasses, lots, and swine for each producer was determined. Producer-level seroprevalence was used to classify swine from producers as having negligible, low, moderate, or widespread evidence of previous or historical exposure to Salmonella spp.
Results—From low-volume producers, 23,609 of 25,478 (92.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 92.4% to 92.9%) samples had negative results, and 1,863 (7.3%; 95% CI, 7.05% to 7.56%) had antibodies against Salmonella spp. Of the 6,299 lots of swine tested, 1,191 (18.9%) contained at least 1 sample with positive results. From high-volume producers, 203 of 2,486 (8.1%; 95% CI, 6.8% to 9.3%) samples had antibodies against Salmonella spp, and 124 of 629 lots had at least 1 sample with positive results for antibodies against Salmonella spp.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Less than 10% of pigs marketed in Iowa are apparently exposed to Salmonella spp. Most swine marketed by low-volume producers had negligible or little evidence of exposure to Salmonella spp, whereas a higher percentage of swine marketed by high-volume producers had positive results when tested to detect antibodies against Salmonella spp.
Objective−To report the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in calves and calf groups (ie, calves from the same farm) in beef breeding herds and evaluate the ability of biosecurity risk assessment questionnaires to identify calf groups with positive results for BVDV.
Animals−12,030 calves born in spring from 102 operations.
Procedures−Cow-calf producers that voluntarily enrolled in a screening project submitted ear notch specimens from calves and answered a 29-question survey instrument. Ear notch specimens were tested for BVDV with an antigen-capture ELISA (ACE), and ear notch specimens with positive ACE results for BVDV were immediately retested by performing immunohistochemistry (IHC). Follow-up testing, 3 to 4 weeks after initial positive ACE results, was done by use of a second IHC test and virus isolation on a subsequently submitted ear notch specimen from the same calves to identify those that were persistently infected (PI).
Results−102 producers submitted ear notch specimens for BVDV screening. Initially, 24 of 12,030 calves had positive ACE results for BVDV. A second ear notch specimen was submitted for 20 of these 24 calves. Of 20 retested calves, 12 had positive ICH results for BVDV, confirming PI status. The 12 PI calves came from 4 calf groups (3 singletons and 1 calf group with 9 PI calves).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance−Prevalence of BVDV in calf groups was low, and questions designed to identify high-risk biosecurity behaviors had little value in identifying calf groups with positive results for BVDV.