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  • Author or Editor: Annette Liesegang x
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Objective—To compare bone mineral measurements obtained by use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and chemical-physical analyses and determine effects of age and femur size on values obtained for the various techniques.

Sample Population—Femurs obtained from 15 juvenile and 15 adult large-breed dogs.

Procedure—In each femur, 7 regions of interest were examined by use of DEXA to measure the bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), and 5 were examined by use of pQCT to measure BMD. Among these, 1 region was examined by both noninvasive methods and an invasive method. Volume of the femur was determined by water displacement. Volumetric bone density (VBD) was calculated. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), total Ca, and total P contents were determined.

Results—DEXA- and pQCT-derived results revealed that all values increased with age in juvenile dogs. In adults, VBD and pQCT-derived BMD decreased significantly and DEXA-derived BMD increased with increasing femur length. The pQCT-derived BMD correlated well with VBD and Ca content, whereas DEXA-derived BMC was strongly correlated with Ca content. In juveniles, values correlated regardless of the technique used, whereas in adult dogs, DEXA-derived BMD did not correlate with pQCT-derived BMD, Ca concentration, or VBD unless data were adjusted on the basis of femur length.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—DEXA-derived BMD adjusted for femur length yields approximately the same percentage variability in VBD as for pQCT-derived BMD. However, pQCT-derived BMD is still more sensitive for determining variability in Ca concentration, compared with DEXA-derived BMD adjusted for femur length. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:891–900)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of metoclopramide orally administered to healthy bitches on serum prolactin and milk lactose concentrations, gross energy, and dry matter content and on puppy weight gain during early lactation.

ANIMALS 20 client-owned bitches and their 121 puppies.

PROCEDURES 10 bitches received metoclopramide (0.2 mg/kg, PO, q 6 h for 6 days; treatment group) starting 10 to 24 hours after birth of the last puppy of the litter (day 0), and 10 bitches served as the control group. Blood and milk samples from all bitches were collected on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6. Milk samples for days 1 and 2 and days 4 and 6 were pooled because of small volume. Puppies were weighed twice daily.

RESULTS Serum prolactin concentration increased significantly over time in both groups, and no treatment effect was detected. When day-to-day changes were analyzed, the prolactin concentration increased from day 0 to day 1 in the treatment group but not in the control group. Milk lactose concentration increased significantly and was higher in the treatment group than in the control group. Milk dry matter content was unchanged, whereas the time course for milk gross energy content differed significantly between treatment and control bitches. Puppy weight gain was not affected by metoclopramide treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of metoclopramide to healthy bitches after parturition induced a transient increase in serum prolactin concentration and stimulated milk lactose production. It is likely bitches with insufficient or delayed milk production could benefit from metoclopramide treatment.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research