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  • Author or Editor: Annette L. Litster x
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Objective—To determine absolute and relative heart size in clinically normal cats by correlating heart size and selected skeletal structures.

Design— Prospective radiographic study.

Animals—100 cats that did not have thoracic radiographic abnormalities.

Procedure—Standardized measurements of the long and short axes of the heart, midthoracic vertebrae, and other structures were made. Measurements were recorded in millimeters and number of thoracic vertebral lengths spanned by each dimension, measured caudally from T4 in a lateral radiograph. The long- and short-axis measurements of the heart, expressed in vertebral lengths, were added to yield vertebral heart size.

Results—Mean ± SD vertebral heart size in lateral radiographs was 7.5 ± 0.3 vertebrae. The long-axis dimension correlated with the length of 3 sternebrae, measured from S2 to S4. The cardiac short-axis dimension correlated moderately with the length of 3.2 vertebrae, measured from T4 to T6. The cardiac short-axis dimension in ventrodorsal radiographs was 3.4 ± 0.25 vertebrae.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The vertebral heart-size method is easy to use, allows objective assessment of heart size, and may be helpful in determining cardiomegaly and comparing heart size in sequential radiographs. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:210–214)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefovecin, and doxycycline in shelter-housed cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD).

Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.

Animals—48 cats with URTD.

Procedures—Conjunctival and nasal swab specimens were obtained for culture and susceptibility testing, and cats were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (16 cats/group) on day 1: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (12.5 mg/kg [5.68 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h, for 14 days), cefovecin (8.0 mg/kg [3.64 mg/lb], SC, once), or doxycycline (10.0 mg/kg [4.55 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h, for 14 days). Oculonasal discharge, sneezing, coughing, dyspnea, demeanor, and food intake were scored twice daily for 14 days (scale, 0 [subjectively normal] to 3 [markedly abnormal]).

Results—The most common bacterial isolates were Mycoplasma spp (n = 22) and Bordetella bronchiseptica (9). Cats treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or doxycycline had significantly increased body weight by day 14. Cats that received doxycycline had significantly lower overall oculonasal discharge scores than those treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or cefovecin. Cats treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or doxycycline had significantly lower overall sneezing scores than those that received cefovecin. Cats that received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid had significantly decreased demeanor and food intake scores on day 2, whereas this was detected later in other groups (demeanor score on days 5 and 7 and food intake score on days 10 and 11 in the cefovecin and doxycycline groups, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or doxycycline appeared to be more effective than a single SC injection of cefovecin in treating cats with clinical signs of URTD.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association