Objective—To determine prevalence of bacterial contamination
of surgical suction tips.
Sample Population—Surgical tips used during 44
surgical procedures performed on 42 dogs and 2 cats.
Procedure—Surgical procedures were classified into
1 of 3 categories according to degree of bacterial contamination
of the surgical site (clean, clean-contaminated,
contaminated). Two sets of suction apparatuses
were used for test and control suction tips. Test
tips were used normally to suction blood and fluid,
whereas control tips were placed on the surgical
drapes but not in the surgical wound. Suction tips
were collected aseptically and placed into thioglycolate
broth tubes for qualitative aerobic and anaerobic
bacterial culture at the end of each procedure.
Results—Test and control suction tips were contaminated
with bacteria during 30 of 44 (68%) procedures.
Staphylococcus spp were the predominant
bacteria in tips used during clean and clean-contaminated
surgeries. When surgery was performed on
clean-contaminated or contaminated wounds, prevalence
of isolation of other bacteria such as
Pseudomonas spp, Streptococcus spp, and
Escherichia coli from both test and control suction
tips was higher than for clean wounds. Mean time of
procedures during which both test and control suction
tips became contaminated was not significantly different
from time of procedures during which neither
tip became contaminated.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Surgical suction
tips often become contaminated during standard
veterinary surgical procedures. The risk of wound
infection after surgery may be influenced by bacterial
contamination of surgical suction tips. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine effects of oral administration
of metronidazole on the number and species of
duodenal bacteria and selective nutrients of cats.
Animals—6 healthy domestic shorthair cats.
Procedure—Undiluted duodenal fluid was obtained
for quantitative and qualitative bacterial culture to
determine species and number of bacteria in healthy
cats. Blood samples were assayed for taurine, total
protein, albumin, cobalamin, and folate concentrations.
Cats then were given metronidazole (20 mg/kg
of body weight, PO, q 12 h) for 1 month, after which
bacterial cultures and serum assays of nutrients were
repeated. Nine months after cessation of antibiotic
treatment, duodenal bacteria were re-evaluated and
serum was assayed for total protein, albumin, cobalamin,
and folate concentrations.
Results—Oral administration of metronidazole
caused a significant decrease in aerobic and anaerobic
bacterial counts in the duodenum of healthy cats,
accompanied by emergence of Streptococcus spp
and Corynebacterium spp. Serum concentrations of
cobalamin and albumin increased when duodenal
bacterial counts were decreased, although changes in
folate or taurine concentrations were not detected.
Measured variables did not differ, when comparing
results obtained before and 9 months after cessation
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration
of metronidazole decreased the number of
aerobic bacteria and altered indigenous flora in the
small bowel of cats. Normal duodenal flora appeared
to be stable, because species of bacteria were reestablished
by 9 months after cessation of metronidazole.
Bacterial flora appeared to have an impact
on nutrients, because albumin and cobalamin
increased during antibiotic administration and
returned to preadministration concentrations after
cessation of the antimicrobial. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine whether a colony environment predisposes healthy cats to high bacterial counts, including counts of obligate anaerobes, in the duodenum and whether increased numbers of bacteria could be found in the duodenum of cats with signs of chronic gastrointestinal tract disease.
Animals—20 healthy control cats (10 from a colony environment and 10 pet cats) and 19 cats with a history of chronic gastrointestinal tract disease.
Procedure—Undiluted duodenal fluid was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed by bacteriologic culture under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Serum concentrations of cobalamin and folate were also measured.
Results—Significant differences were not detected in the numbers of bacteria found in the duodenum of cats housed in a colony environment, compared with pet cats fed an identical diet prior to sampling. All healthy cats were, therefore, combined into 1 control group. Compared with healthy cats, cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal tract disease had significantly lower counts of microaerophilic bacteria, whereas total, anaerobic, and aerobic bacterial counts were not significantly different. None of the cats with disease had total bacterial counts higher than expected from the range established in the control cats. Differences were not detected in regard to serum folate or cobalamin concentrations between diseased and healthy cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings indicated that healthy colony cats and pet cats have high numbers of bacteria in the duodenum, including high numbers of obligate anaerobes. Our findings also suggest that bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine is not a common clinical syndrome in cats with chronic nonobstructive gastrointestinal tract disease. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:48–51)