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  • Author or Editor: Anne E. Chauvet x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine what effects long-term phenobarbital administration to dogs with epilepsy would have on serum biochemical factors and adrenocortical function.

Design—

Prospective, uncontrolled study.

Animals—

Five dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

Procedure—

Serum total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, and cholesterol concentrations and serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities were measured before and 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after initiation of phenobarbital administration. Endogenous ACTH concentration was measured, and ACTH stimulation and low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests were performed at the same time.

Results—

Serum albumin concentration decreased in 4 of 5 dogs, and serum cholesterol concentrations decreased in all 5 dogs over the course of the study. Serum alkaline phosphatase concentration and alanine aminotransferase activities increased over time, and were greater than the upper reference limits in 4 of the 5 dogs by the end of the study. Endogenous ACTH concentration increased in all dogs but remained within reference limits. Plasma ACTH-stimulated aldosterone concentration increased over the course of the study. Plasma cortisol concentration did not suppress, after administration of dexamethasone, in 1 dog after 6 and 12 months of phenobarbital administration.

Clinical Implications—

Although endogenous acthconcentration should be normal in dogs receiving phenobarbital, results of ACTH stimulation and dexamethasone suppression tests may be altered. Serum albumin and cholesterol concentrations, and serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities may also be abnormal.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Four dairy cows that had been successfully rebred following fetal Neospora infection and abortion were identified from 2 drylot dairies. All 4 cows had uncomplicated pregnancies with the birth of 5 full-term calves. The calves all had high precolostral serum IgG antibodies. The precolostral antibodies to Neospora sp as determined by indirect fluorescent antibody test ranged from 5,120 to 20,480, compared with maternal serum and colostral antibody titers from 320 to 1,280. Two calves had mild neurologic limb deficits. Three calves had mild nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis and Neospora organisms were found in the CNS of 3 calves. Findings indicate that repeat transplacental Neospora infections occur in cows. Additionally, calves born from cows with a history of Neospora fetal infection and abortion may have congenital Neospora infections and/or neurologic dysfunctions at birth. The Neospora indirect fluorescent antibody test appears to be a useful antemortem test for detection of calves exposed in utero to Neospora organisms.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association