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  • Author or Editor: Anne C. Avery x
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Case Description—A 9-year-old castrated male mixed-breed dog and a 7-year-old spayed female Boston Terrier, with clinical histories of a liver mass (dog 1) and bloody vomitus, diarrhea, and weight loss (dog 2), respectively, were referred for further evaluation.

Clinical Findings—At the time of referral, each dog had differing laboratory abnormalities; however, the serum total protein and globulin concentrations were within reference range in both dogs. Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates obtained from affected organs (a liver mass [dog 1] and enlarged submandibular lymph node [dog 2]) revealed 2 main nucleated cell types: atypical lymphoid cells and lesser numbers of Mott cells. With the use of serum immunofixation electrophoresis and serum immunoglobulin quantification, a monoclonal immunoglobulin protein was identified in both dogs and a final diagnosis of secretory B-cell lymphoma with Mott cell differentiation (MCL) was made.

Treatment and Outcome—Both dogs received chemotherapy for their disease. The first dog was euthanized 8.5 months after diagnosis because of acute respiratory distress of unknown etiology, and the second was euthanized 7 days after diagnosis for worsening clinical disease and quality of life.

Clinical Relevance—To our knowledge, this report is the first of a secretory form of MCL in dogs. Findings indicate that in dogs with suspect MCL, even in patients that lack characteristic hyperproteinemia or hyperglobulinemia, serum protein content should be fully evaluated for the presence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin protein. Such an evaluation that uses immunofixation electrophoresis and immunoglobulin quantification will aid in the diagnosis of MCL in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To describe cytologic characteristics of renal fine-needle aspirate (FNA) samples from dogs, evaluate proportions of cytologic specimens deemed adequate for interpretation (diagnostic yield), assess diagnostic utility of cytologic examination for neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases, and characterize ultrasonographic features of evaluated kidneys to determine whether the imaging characteristics could be used to inform cytologic interpretations.

DESIGN Retrospective, observational study.

SAMPLE 102 cytologic specimens and 97 ultrasonographic studies from 100 dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent ultrasound-guided renal FNA. Slides were categorized as adequate or inadequate for interpretation; adequate slides were used for retrospective cytologic diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of cytologic examination for detection of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions were calculated by comparison with histologic or lymphoid cell clonality assay results. Ultrasonographic characteristics of neoplastic and nonneoplastic renal lesions were described.

RESULTS 74 of 102 (72%) specimens had slides adequate for interpretation; 26 were included in the diagnostic accuracy analysis. Sensitivity of cytologic examination was 78% and 50% for detection of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions, respectively, with specificities of 50% and 77%, respectively; sensitivity for detection of lymphoma was 100%. Ultrasonographic appearance of kidneys with confirmed neoplasia varied; masses were most commonly found in kidneys with carcinoma (5/5), lymphoma (5/7), or other neoplasia (3/4) and absent in kidneys with nonneoplastic conditions (n = 5).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Renal FNA specimens were adequate for interpretation at rates comparable with those reported for other organs and were considered clinically useful for diagnosis of neoplasia. Imaging characteristics may potentially aid differentiation between neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions; however, further investigation is needed.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe the clinical findings and outcome in hypercalcemic dogs that were diagnosed with T-cell lymphoid neoplasia by bone marrow evaluation.


11 client-owned dogs, identified retrospectively through 2 diagnostic laboratories between 2014 and 2021.


Cases presented with hypercalcemia and lacked overt evidence of lymphoid neoplasia in the blood or nonmedullary tissues. T-cell lymphoid neoplasia was diagnosed once the bone marrow was investigated, using a variable combination of cytology, histology, and flow cytometry.


The median age at presentation was 5.7 years (range, 4.0 to 8.6 years). All cases were large-breed dogs, and 4 of 11 cases were Golden Retrievers. Dogs presented most commonly for polyuria and polydipsia (72%). Eight cases had neutropenia, and 10 of 11 dogs had reported thrombocytopenia. In all cases, flow cytometry identified an expansion of neoplastic small- to intermediate-sized T cells in the bone marrow that expressed low-class-II major histocompatibility complex. Neoplastic T cells in 10 of 11 cases expressed CD4. Treatments ranged from prednisone alone to multiagent chemotherapy. The median overall survival time was 260 days (range, 25 to 792 days).


T-cell lymphoid neoplasia diagnosed via bone marrow evaluation that may represent a unique bone marrow T-cell neoplastic entity should be considered in hypercalcemic dogs with isolated cytopenias that lack peripheral lymphocytosis, lymphadenopathy, and organomegaly. Clinical outcome in these cases was variable, which may be related to nonstandardized treatments, but a subset of patients had prolonged survival.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association