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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the effects of computed tomography (CT) image plane and window settings on diagnostic certainty for CT characteristics associated with dysplastic elbow joints (elbow joint dysplasia) in dogs and to provide optimal display guidelines for these CT characteristics.

Sample Population—CT images of 50 dysplastic elbow joints from 49 lame dogs and 10 elbow joints from 5 sound dogs.

Procedures—CT image data were obtained in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. Each plane was examined by use of 3 Hounsfield unit (HU) window settings. Two veterinary radiologists independently evaluated sets of CT images for evidence of 7 CT characteristics. Effect of elbow joint status, image plane, and window settings on diagnostic certainty for these CT characteristics was tested by use of a visual analogue scale.

Results—Diagnostic certainty for abnormalities of the medial coronoid process (MCP) and radial incisure was highest in the transverse plane, subchondral defects or sclerosis of the trochlea humeri was highest in the dorsal plane, and joint incongruity was highest in the sagittal plane. Certainty for hypoattenuating subchondral defects or fissures was highest at 2,500 or 3,500 HUs, whereas certainty for subchondral sclerosis was highest at 1,500 HUs and lowest at 3,500 HUs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diagnostic certainty for CT characteristics of elbow joint dysplasia in dogs was affected by image display variables. Diagnostic certainty for altered subchondral bone density was primarily influenced by window settings, whereas structural MCP abnormalities and joint incongruity were influenced most by image plane.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the correlation between the half-time of liquid-phase gastric emptying (T50) determined by use of nuclear scintigraphy, using technetium Tc 99m pentetate, and absorption variables of orally administered acetaminophen in horses with experimentally delayed gastric emptying.

Animals—6 mature horses.

Procedure—Delayed gastric emptying was induced by IV injection of atropine sulfate. Twenty minutes later, acetaminophen and technetium Tc 99m pentetate were administered simultaneously via nasogastric tube. Serial lateral images of the stomach region were obtained, using a gamma camera. Power exponential curves were used for estimation of T50 and modified R2 values for estimation of goodness-of-fit of the data. Serial serum samples were obtained, and acetaminophen concentration was determined, using fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax), time to reach maximum serum concentration (Tmax), area under the curve for 480 minutes, and the appearance rate constant were determined, using a parameter estimation program. Correlations were calculated, using a Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

Results—A significant correlation was detected between T50 determined by use of scintigraphy and Tmax determined by use of acetaminophen absorption. Correlation between T50 and other absorption variables of acetaminophen was not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The acetaminophen absorption method was a valid technique in this model of delayed gastric emptying in horses. The method may be a valuable tool for use in research as well as in clinical evaluation of gastric emptying in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:170–174)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To devise a technique for gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in dogs and determine effects of complete occlusion of the caudal vena cava.

Animals—8 mixed-breed hounds that weighed between 25 and 30 kg.

Procedure—Baseline evaluation of dogs included serum biochemical analyses and determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with dynamic renal scintigraphy and plasma clearance analysis. An occluder was placed around the vena cava in the region cranial to the renal veins. The occluder was attached to a vascular access port. The vena cava was gradually occluded over 2 weeks. The GFR was measured every 2 weeks after surgery, and venograms were performed every 3 weeks after surgery. Blood samples were collected every 48 hours for the first week and then weekly thereafter to measure BUN and creatinine concentrations and activities of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine kinase. Dogs were euthanatized 6 weeks after surgery, and tissues were submitted for histologic examination. The GFR and biochemical data were compared with baseline values.

Results—Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava was easily and consistently performed with this method, and adverse clinical signs were not detected. Formation of collateral vessels allowed overall GFR to remain constant despite a decrease in function of the left kidney. Measured biochemical values did not deviate from reference ranges.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava may allow removal of adrenal gland tumors with vascular invasion that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to resect. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1347–1353)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of femur positioning on radiographic assessment of completeness of excision after femoral head and neck excision (FHNE) in medium to large breed dogs.

Sample Population—10 femurs from canine cadavers (body weight > 20 kg).

Procedure—Complete FHNE was performed on 5 canine femurs. Excision consisting of inadequate removal of the medial distal aspect of the femoral neck was performed on the remaining 5 femurs. Each femur was positioned with predetermined amounts of internal and external rotation about the long axis and radiographed. Investigators evaluated a set of 8 radiographic views of each femur. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and completeness of excision assessment accuracy were estimated for each of the femur positions.

Results—Craniocaudal radiographic views of the femur positioned with external rotation of 15°, 30°, and 45° as a group had the highest SE, SP, and completeness of excision assessment accuracy relative to other radiographic views. The SE, SP, and accuracy of assessment were higher when the degree of external rotation was increased from 15° to 30° or 45°.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Craniocaudal radiographic views of the femur positioned in external rotation (15°, 30°, and 45°) improved the ability to detect adequacy of excision relative to standard craniocaudal and lateromedial radiographic views. Evaluation of craniocaudal radiographic views of the femur positioned in external rotation may increase the ability to assess FHNE adequacy in medium- to large- breed dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research