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  • Author or Editor: Anna K. Parviainen x
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Objective— To evaluate effects of polymyxin B sulfate (PMB) on response of horses to endotoxin, using an ex vivo model.

Animals—8 healthy horses.

Procedure—In a crossover design, 3 doses of PMB (100, 1,000, and 10,000 U/kg of body weight) and physiologic saline solution (control) were evaluated. Prior to and for 24 hours after administration of PMB, blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes for use in 2 assays. For the endotoxin-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) assay, blood samples were incubated (37 C for 4 h) with 1 ng of Escherichia coli or Salmonella Typhimurium endotoxin/ml of blood. Plasma was harvested and assayed. For the residual endotoxin activity assay, plasma was collected into sterile endotoxin-free borosilicate tubes, diluted 1:10 with pyrogen-free water, and incubated for 10 minutes at 70 C. Escherichia coli endotoxin (0.1 or 1 ng/ml of plasma) was added to the thawed samples prior to performing the limulus ameobocyte lysate assay. Serum creatinine concentrations were monitored for 1 week.

Results—Compared with baseline values, PMB caused a significant dose- and time- dependent decrease in endotoxin-induced TNF activity. Compared with baseline values, residual endotoxin activity was significantly reduced after administration of 10,000 U of PMB/kg. Compared with baseline values, 1,000 and 5,000 U of PMB/kg should inhibit 75% of endotoxin-induced TNF activity for 3 and 12 hours, respectively. Serum creatinine concentrations remained within the reference range.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results of the study suggest that PMB is a safe, effective inhibitor of endotoxin-induced inflammation in healthy horses. ( Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:72–76)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare a double-layer inverting anastomosis with a single-layer appositional anastomosis, coated with either 1% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) or 0.4% sodium hyaluronate (HA) solutions, in the small intestine of horses with respect to anastomotic healing and adhesion formation.

Animals—18 adult horses.

Procedure—Midline celiotomy and end-to-end jejunal anastomoses were performed. In control group horses (n = 6), a double-layer inverting anastomosis coated with sterile lactated Ringer's solution was performed. In treatment group horses, a single-layer appositional anastomosis was performed that was coated with 1% carboxymethylcellulose solution (SAA + SCMC group horses, 6) or 0.4% hyaluronate solution (SAA + HA group horses, 6). An additional 500 mL of the respective treatment solution was applied to the jejunal serosal surface, and 2 jejunal serosal abrasion sites were created. Horses were euthanatized 10 days after surgery. Anastomoses and abdominal adhesions were evaluated grossly. Anastomotic healing was evaluated on the basis of bursting wall tension.

Results—Bursting wall tension was significantly greater in SAA + SCMC group horses, compared with control group horses. All intestinal segments failed at a point distant to the anastomosis. Significantly fewer adhesions were found at the abrasion sites of SAA + HA group horses, compared with control group horses. No differences were found in adhesion formation at the anastomotic sites among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Coating a single- layer appositional jejunal anastomosis with SCMC or HA solutions does not adversely affect anastomotic healing. Application of 0.4% HA solution to the serosal surface of the jejunum significantly decreases the incidence of experimentally induced intra-abdominal adhesion formation in horses. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:637–643)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research