Objective—To determine agreement between arterial partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and end-tidal partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) measured with a nasal catheter in spontaneously breathing, critically ill dogs.
Animals—26 client-owned dogs admitted to an intensive care unit for various conditions.
Procedures—PaCO2 was measured with a commercial blood gas analyzer, and PETCO2 was measured with a sidestream capnograph attached to a nasal catheter. Measurements were obtained twice (ie, with and without supplemental oxygen). Paired values were compared by means of the Pearson correlation method. Level of agreement was assessed by means of the Bland-Altman method.
Results—Mean difference between PaCO2 and PETCO2 when dogs did not receive supplemental oxygen (mean ± SD, 3.95 ± 4.92 mm Hg) was significantly lower than mean difference when dogs did receive supplemental oxygen (6.87 ± 6.42 mm Hg). Mean difference in dogs with a condition affecting the respiratory system (8.55 ± 5.43 mm Hg) was significantly higher than mean difference in dogs without respiratory tract disease (3.28 ± 3.23 mm Hg). There was a significant linear correlation and good agreement between measured values of PaCO2 and PETCO2. Catheter size, ventilatory status, and outcome were not significantly associated with mean difference between PaCO2 and PETCO2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that nasal capnography is a clinically relevant method of estimating PaCO2 in spontaneously breathing, critically ill dogs, but that values should be interpreted with caution in dogs receiving supplemental oxygen and in dogs with conditions affecting the respiratory system.
Objective—To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features correlated with histologic diagnosis in dogs with nasal disease.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—78 dogs undergoing MRI for evaluation of nasal disease.
Procedures—Medical records and MRI reports of dogs were reviewed to identify MRI features associated with histologic diagnosis. Features evaluated were presence of a mass effect, frontal sinus involvement, sphenoid sinus involvement, maxillary recess involvement, nasopharyngeal infiltration by soft tissue, nasal turbinate destruction, vomer bone lysis, paranasal bone destruction, cribriform plate erosion, and lesion extent (ie, unilateral vs bilateral).
Results—33 dogs had neoplastic disease, 38 had inflammatory rhinitis, and 7 had fungal rhinitis. Lesion extent was not significantly associated with histologic diagnosis. Absence of a mass effect was significantly associated with inflammatory disease. However, presence of a mass was not specific for neoplasia. In dogs with evidence of a mass on magnetic resonance (MR) images, nasal turbinate destruction, frontal sinus invasion, and maxillary recess invasion were not useful in distinguishing neoplastic from nonneoplastic disease, but cribriform plate erosion, vomer bone lysis, paranasal bone destruction, sphenoid sinus invasion, and nasopharyngeal invasion were.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs with nasal disease, the lack of a mass effect on MR images was significantly associated with inflammatory disease. In dogs with a mass effect on MR images, vomer bone lysis, cribriform plate erosion, paranasal bone destruction, sphenoid sinus invasion by a mass, and nasopharyngeal invasion by a mass were significantly associated with a diagnosis of neoplasia.
Objective—To evaluate anatomic reduction and surgical
stabilization of femoral capital physeal fractures
Procedure—Medical records of cats with unilateral or
bilateral femoral capital physeal fractures evaluated
from 1998 to 2002 were reviewed. Age and weight of
cats at the time of surgery; breed; sex; concurrent
injuries; severity of lameness before and 1, 2, 4, 6,
and 8 weeks after surgery; the amount of fracture
reduction achieved and number of Kirschner wires (K-wires)
used; degree of degenerative joint disease of
the hip joint and lysis of the femoral neck and head
observed after surgery; whether K-wires were
removed after surgery; and complications after
surgery were evaluated.
Results—Thirteen cats with 16 capital physeal fractures
were identified. There was significant improvement
in the severity of clinical lameness in all cats
from weeks 1 through 4 after surgery. There was no
correlation between the scores of the individuals who
evaluated radiographs for fracture reduction and
placement of K-wires.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested
that surgical stabilization and repair of femoral
capital physeal fractures facilitate a short recovery period
and a good prognosis for return to normal function
in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1478–1482)
Objective—To determine in dogs what effect using
hip conformation scores assigned by the Orthopedic
Foundation for Animals (OFA) as a criterion for breeding
selections would have on hip conformation scores
of the progeny.
Animals—English Setters, Portuguese Water Dogs,
Chinese Shar-peis, and Bernese Mountain Dogs for
which OFA hip conformation scores were known.
Procedure—Pedigree data were obtained from the
national breed clubs and the American Kennel Club and
merged with data from the OFA hip conformation score
database. An ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects
of sex, age at the time of radiographic evaluation, and
year of birth on the variation in hip conformation scores
among the progeny. Heritability was estimated by use
of within-year midparent offspring regression analyses.
Results—Significant differences in progeny hip conformation
scores between sexes were not detected,
but age at the time of radiographic evaluation and year
of birth had a significant effect on hip joint conformation
of the progeny. Estimated heritability (mean ± SE)
was 0.26 ± 0.03, and dam and sire hip conformation
scores had a significant effect on progeny hip conformation
scores. Annual decreases in percentage of
dysplastic progeny and increases in percentages of
progeny and breeding dogs with phenotypically normal
hip joint conformation were detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that hip conformation scores have moderate
heritability in dogs and selection of breeding stock
with better hip conformation scores will increase the
percentage of progeny with phenotypically normal hip
joint conformation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;
Objective—To evaluate feasibility of single-session
bilateral triple pelvic osteotomy with 8-hole iliac bone
plates in dogs with bilateral hip dysplasia.
Animals—95 dogs with bilateral hip dysplasia.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and
information was obtained on signalment; body
weight; angles of subluxation and reduction prior to
surgery; durations of surgery and hospitalization;
postoperative mobility; severity of lameness, radiographic
grade of hip dysplasia, Norberg angle, and
femoral head coverage before and after surgery; time
required for radiographic evidence of iliac healing;
change in pelvic diameter; implant integrity; and complications.
Results—Mean age at the time of surgery was 10.8
months, and mean weight was 35.2 kg (77.4 lb). Prior
to surgery, mean angles of subluxation were 2.2° on
the right and 2.6° on the left; mean angles of reduction
were 25.9° on the right and 27.3° on the left.
Mean surgical time was 95 minutes. All but 1 dog
were able to walk on their own by the fourth day after
surgery. Mean hospitalization time was 7.5 days.
Clinical signs of lameness and radiographic grade of
hip dysplasia were significantly improved during follow-up examinations. Mean time for radiographic iliac
healing was 8 weeks. None of the plates and only 7
of the 1,520 (0.5%) screws loosened after surgery.
Nineteen dogs had complications, but all complications
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that single-session bilateral triple pelvic osteotomy
with 8-hole iliac bone plates is effective for treatment
of dogs with bilateral hip dysplasia. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2003;222:54–59)