Objective—To document effects of cisplatin on
regenerate bone formation during the distraction and
consolidation phases of bone transport osteogenesis.
Animals—10 skeletally mature hounds.
Procedure—Bone transport osteogenesis was performed
to reconstruct a 3-cm defect in the radius of
each dog. Five dogs were randomly selected to
receive cisplatin (70 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d for 4 cycles),
and 5 were administered saline (0.9% NaCl) solution.
Bone mineral density was measured by use of
dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) on days 24,
55, and 90 after surgery. Dogs were euthanatized 90
days after surgery. Histomorphometry was performed
on nondecalcified sections of regenerate
bone. Bone mineral density and histomorphometric
indices of newly formed bone were compared
Results—Densitometric differences in regenerate
bone mineral density were not detected between
groups at any time period. Cisplatin-treated dogs
had decreased mineralized bone volume, decreased
percentage of woven bone volume, decreased percentage
of osteoblast-covered bone, increased
porosity, and increased percentage of osteoblast-covered
surfaces, compared with values for control
dogs. Lamellar bone volume and osteoid volume did
not differ significantly between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Regenerate
bone will form and remodel during administration of
cisplatin. Results of histomorphometric analysis suggest
that bone formation and resorption may be
uncoupled in cisplatin-treated regenerate bone as a
result of increased osteoclast activity or delayed secondary
bone formation during remodeling. These histomorphometric
differences were modest in magnitude
and did not result in clinically observable complications
or decreased bone mineral density as measured
by use of DEXA. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine whether carprofen, a commercially available NSAID, would decrease perceived exertion and signs of pain in dogs and therefore increase muscle mass and hind limb function without decreasing range of motion after lateral fabellar suture stabilization.
Animals—35 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture and lateral fabellar suture stabilization followed by rehabilitation.
Procedures—All dogs underwent surgical stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament rupture by placement of a lateral fabellar suture. Dogs received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) for the first 7 days after surgery and underwent concentrated rehabilitation exercises during weeks 3, 5, and 7 after surgery. Eighteen dogs also received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) during the weeks of concentrated rehabilitation. Outcomes were measured by a single investigator, who was blinded to group assignments, using pressure platform gait analysis, goniometry, thigh circumference, and mean workout speed at a consistent level of exertion.
Results—There were no differences between the 2 groups in ground reaction forces, thigh circumference, or exertion (mean workout speed) over time or at any individual time point. However, both groups improved significantly over time for all outcome measures.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Providing carprofen to dogs during concentrated rehabilitation after lateral fabellar suture stabilization did not improve hind limb function, range of motion, or thigh circumference, nor did it decrease perceived exertion, compared with control dogs. Carprofen was not a compulsory component of a physical therapy regimen after lateral fabellar suture stabilization.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of an osteoconductive
resorbable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) on
the holding power of bone screws in canine pelvises
and to compare the effect with that for polymethylmethacrylate
Sample Population—35 pelvises obtained from
Procedure—Each pelvis was sectioned longitudinally.
Within each pair of hemipelvises, one 4.0-mm cancellous
screw was placed in the sacroiliac (SI) region and
another in the iliac body. Similar regions on the contralateral-
matched hemipelvis were assigned 1 of 3 augmentation
techniques (CPC-augmented 4.0-mm cancellous
screws, PMMA-augmented 4.0-mm cancellous
screws, and CPC-augmented 3.5-mm cortical screws).
Pullout force was compared between matched screws
and between treatment groups prior to examination of
cross sections for evaluation of cement filling and noncortical
bone-to-cortical bone ratio.
Results—CPC and PMMA augmentation significantly
increased pullout force of 4.0-mm screws inserted in
the SI region by 19.5% and 33.2%, respectively, and
CPC augmentation significantly increased pullout force
of 4.0-mm cancellous screws inserted in the iliac body
by 21.2%. There was no difference in the mean percentage
augmentation between treatment groups at
either location. Cement filling was superior in noncortical
bone, compared with filling for cortical bone.
Noncortical bone-to-cortical bone ratio was significantly
greater in the sacrum (6.1:1) than the ilium (1.3:1).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CPC and
PMMA improve the ex vivo holding strength of
4.0-mm cancellous screws in the SI and iliac body
regions and SI region, respectively. Cement augmentation
may be more effective in areas with greater
noncortical bone-to-cortical bone ratios. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine whether treatment with
selamectin would reduce clinical signs of flea allergy
dermatitis (FAD) in dogs and cats housed in flea-infested
Design—Randomized controlled trial.
Animals—22 dogs and 17 cats confirmed to have FAD.
Procedure—Animals were housed in carpeted pens
capable of supporting the flea life cycle and infested
with 100 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on days –13 and
–2 and on alternate weeks with 10 to 20 fleas. On day
0, 11 dogs and 8 cats were treated with selamectin (6
mg/kg [2.7 mg/lb]). Dogs were retreated on day 30;
cats were retreated on days 30 and 60. All animals
were examined periodically for clinical signs of FAD.
Flea counts were conducted at weekly intervals.
Results—Throughout the study, geometric mean flea
counts exceeded 100 for control animals and were ≤ 11
for selamectin-treated animals. Selamectin-treated
cats had significant improvements in the severity of
miliary lesions and scaling or crusting on days 42 and
84, compared with conditions on day –8, and in severity
of excoriation on day 42. In contrast, control cats did
not have any significant improvements in any of the
clinical signs of FAD. Selamectin-treated dogs had significant
improvements in all clinical signs on days 28
and 61, but in control dogs, severity of clinical signs of
FAD was not significantly different from baseline severity
at any time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that topical administration of selamectin, even without
the use of supplementary environmental control
measures and with minimal therapeutic intervention,
can reduce the severity of clinical signs of FAD in dogs
and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:639–644)
Objective—To estimate the annual cost of infections
attributable to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
(PRRS) virus to US swine producers.
Sample Population—Data on the health and productivity
of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected breeding
herds and growing-pig populations were collected
from a convenience sample of swine farms in the
midwestern United States.
Procedure—Health and productivity variables of
PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected swine farms
were analyzed to estimate the impact of PRRS on
specific farms. National estimates of PRRS incidence
were then used to determine the annual economic
impact of PRRS on US swine producers.
Results—PRRS affected breeding herds and growing-pig
populations as measured by a decrease in reproductive
health, an increase in deaths, and reductions
in the rate and efficiency of growth. Total annual economic
impact of these effects on US swine producers
was estimated at $66.75 million in breeding herds and
$493.57 million in growing-pig populations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PRRS imposes
a substantial financial burden on US swine producers
and causes approximately $560.32 million in
losses each year. By comparison, prior to eradication,
annual losses attributable to classical swine fever
(hog cholera) and pseudorabies were estimated at
$364.09 million and $36.27 million, respectively
(adjusted on the basis of year 2004 dollars). Current
PRRS control strategies are not predictably successful;
thus, PRRS-associated losses will continue into
the future. Research to improve our understanding of
ecologic and epidemiologic characteristics of the
PRRS virus and technologic advances (vaccines and
diagnostic tests) to prevent clinical effects are warranted.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:385–392)
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of prosthetic laryngoplasty on return to racing, performance index, and career longevity in racing Quarter Horses with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) and to evaluate performance variables for horses with RLN undergoing prosthetic laryngoplasty, compared with a control horse population.
DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 162 racing Quarter Horses with RLN treated with prosthetic laryngoplasty (case horses) and 324 racing Quarter Horse without RLN (control horses).
PROCEDURES Medical and race records of case and control horses examined at 5 referral centers between January 2000 and December 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Two control horses were matched with each case horse. Return to racing, earnings, number of racing starts, performance index, and career longevity were evaluated.
RESULTS The odds of returning to racing did not differ significantly between case and control horses but decreased with increasing age. Neither racing starts nor career longevity were affected by prosthetic laryngoplasty or by RLN grade. In fact, horses undergoing laryngoplasty for treatment of RLN and horses with the lowest RLN grade before surgery had higher performance indices after the surgery, compared with indices for control horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The faster speeds and shorter distances raced with Quarter Horses could alter how RLN impacts respiratory variables and performance in Quarter Horses, compared with other racehorse breeds. Further study is needed to understand the impacts of RLN and surgical treatments for RLN in racing Quarter Horses.