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  • Author or Editor: Ann H. Seitzinger x
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Objective—To estimate potential revenue impacts of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States similar to the outbreak in the United Kingdom during 2001.

Design—Economic analysis successively incorporating quarantine and slaughter of animals, an export ban, and consumer fears about the disease were used to determine the combined impact.

Sample Population—Secondary data for cattle, swine, lambs, poultry, and products of these animals.

Procedure—Data for 1999 were used to calibrate a model for the US agricultural sector. Removal of animals, similar to that observed in the United Kingdom, was introduced, along with a ban on exportation of livestock, red meat, and dairy products and a reduction and shift in consumption of red meat in the United States.

Results—The largest impacts on farm income of an FMD outbreak were from the loss of export markets and reductions in domestic demand arising from consumer fears, not from removal of infected animals. These elements could cause an estimated decrease of $14 billion (9.5%) in US farm income. Losses in gross revenue for each sector were estimated to be the following: live swine, –34%; pork, –24%; live cattle –17%; beef, –20%; milk, –16%; live lambs and sheep, –14%; lamb and sheep meat, –10%; forage, –15%; and soybean meal, –7%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Procedures to contain an outbreak of FMD to specific regions and allow maintenance of FMD-free exports and efforts to educate consumers about health risks are critical to mitigating adverse economic impacts of an FMD outbreak. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:988–992)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To estimate the annual cost of infections attributable to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus to US swine producers.

Design—Economic analysis.

Sample Population—Data on the health and productivity of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected breeding herds and growing-pig populations were collected from a convenience sample of swine farms in the midwestern United States.

Procedure—Health and productivity variables of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected swine farms were analyzed to estimate the impact of PRRS on specific farms. National estimates of PRRS incidence were then used to determine the annual economic impact of PRRS on US swine producers.

Results—PRRS affected breeding herds and growing-pig populations as measured by a decrease in reproductive health, an increase in deaths, and reductions in the rate and efficiency of growth. Total annual economic impact of these effects on US swine producers was estimated at $66.75 million in breeding herds and $493.57 million in growing-pig populations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PRRS imposes a substantial financial burden on US swine producers and causes approximately $560.32 million in losses each year. By comparison, prior to eradication, annual losses attributable to classical swine fever (hog cholera) and pseudorabies were estimated at $364.09 million and $36.27 million, respectively (adjusted on the basis of year 2004 dollars). Current PRRS control strategies are not predictably successful; thus, PRRS-associated losses will continue into the future. Research to improve our understanding of ecologic and epidemiologic characteristics of the PRRS virus and technologic advances (vaccines and diagnostic tests) to prevent clinical effects are warranted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:385–392)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate herd-level risk factors for seropositive status of cattle to 1 or more bluetongue viruses.

Animals—110 herds of cattle in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected before and after the vector season. Samples were tested for antibodies against bluetongue virus by use of a commercially available competitive ELISA. Factors evaluated included descriptors of geographic location and management practices. Trapping of insect vectors was conducted to evaluate vector status on a subset of 57 operations. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to evaluate associations.

Results—For the full data set, altitude and latitude were associated with risk of having seropositive cattle (an increase in altitude was associated with an increase in risk, and a more northerly location was associated with a decrease in risk of a premise having seropositive cattle). Import of cattle from selected states was associated with an increase in risk of having seropositive cattle. From the subset of herds with data on vector trapping, altitude and latitude were associated with risk of having seropositive cattle, similar to that for the full model. However, commingling with cattle from other herds was associated with a decrease in risk of seropositivity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings reported here may be useful in generating additional hypotheses regarding the ecologic characteristics of bluetongue viruses and other vector-borne diseases of livestock. Sentinel surveillance programs are useful for documenting regionalization zones for diseases, which can be beneficial when securing international markets for animals and animal products. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:853–860)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research