Objective—To estimate potential revenue impacts of
an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the
United States similar to the outbreak in the United
Kingdom during 2001.
Design—Economic analysis successively incorporating
quarantine and slaughter of animals, an export
ban, and consumer fears about the disease were
used to determine the combined impact.
Sample Population—Secondary data for cattle,
swine, lambs, poultry, and products of these animals.
Procedure—Data for 1999 were used to calibrate a
model for the US agricultural sector. Removal of animals,
similar to that observed in the United Kingdom,
was introduced, along with a ban on exportation of
livestock, red meat, and dairy products and a reduction
and shift in consumption of red meat in the
Results—The largest impacts on farm income of an
FMD outbreak were from the loss of export markets
and reductions in domestic demand arising from consumer
fears, not from removal of infected animals.
These elements could cause an estimated decrease
of $14 billion (9.5%) in US farm income. Losses in
gross revenue for each sector were estimated to be
the following: live swine, –34%; pork, –24%; live cattle
–17%; beef, –20%; milk, –16%; live lambs and
sheep, –14%; lamb and sheep meat, –10%; forage,
–15%; and soybean meal, –7%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Procedures
to contain an outbreak of FMD to specific regions and
allow maintenance of FMD-free exports and efforts to
educate consumers about health risks are critical to
mitigating adverse economic impacts of an FMD outbreak.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:988–992)
Objective—To estimate the annual cost of infections
attributable to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
(PRRS) virus to US swine producers.
Sample Population—Data on the health and productivity
of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected breeding
herds and growing-pig populations were collected
from a convenience sample of swine farms in the
midwestern United States.
Procedure—Health and productivity variables of
PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected swine farms
were analyzed to estimate the impact of PRRS on
specific farms. National estimates of PRRS incidence
were then used to determine the annual economic
impact of PRRS on US swine producers.
Results—PRRS affected breeding herds and growing-pig
populations as measured by a decrease in reproductive
health, an increase in deaths, and reductions
in the rate and efficiency of growth. Total annual economic
impact of these effects on US swine producers
was estimated at $66.75 million in breeding herds and
$493.57 million in growing-pig populations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PRRS imposes
a substantial financial burden on US swine producers
and causes approximately $560.32 million in
losses each year. By comparison, prior to eradication,
annual losses attributable to classical swine fever
(hog cholera) and pseudorabies were estimated at
$364.09 million and $36.27 million, respectively
(adjusted on the basis of year 2004 dollars). Current
PRRS control strategies are not predictably successful;
thus, PRRS-associated losses will continue into
the future. Research to improve our understanding of
ecologic and epidemiologic characteristics of the
PRRS virus and technologic advances (vaccines and
diagnostic tests) to prevent clinical effects are warranted.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:385–392)
Objective—To evaluate herd-level risk factors for
seropositive status of cattle to 1 or more bluetongue
Animals—110 herds of cattle in Nebraska, North
Dakota, and South Dakota.
Procedure—Blood samples were collected before
and after the vector season. Samples were tested
for antibodies against bluetongue virus by use of a
commercially available competitive ELISA. Factors
evaluated included descriptors of geographic location
and management practices. Trapping of insect
vectors was conducted to evaluate vector status on
a subset of 57 operations. A multivariable logistic
regression model was constructed to evaluate associations.
Results—For the full data set, altitude and latitude
were associated with risk of having seropositive cattle
(an increase in altitude was associated with an
increase in risk, and a more northerly location was
associated with a decrease in risk of a premise having
seropositive cattle). Import of cattle from selected
states was associated with an increase in risk of having
seropositive cattle. From the subset of herds with
data on vector trapping, altitude and latitude were
associated with risk of having seropositive cattle, similar
to that for the full model. However, commingling
with cattle from other herds was associated with a
decrease in risk of seropositivity.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings
reported here may be useful in generating additional
hypotheses regarding the ecologic characteristics of
bluetongue viruses and other vector-borne diseases
of livestock. Sentinel surveillance programs are useful
for documenting regionalization zones for diseases,
which can be beneficial when securing international
markets for animals and animal products. (Am J Vet