To study ground reaction forces (GRF) and temporospatial parameters for small and medium size dogs using a pressure sensitive walkway (PSW). We hypothesized that, at a given speed, small dogs would have shorter stance time than medium dogs and that dog height (DH) would influence GRF.
30 healthy, sound dogs were divided into 2 groups, small < 15 kg and medium dog group weighing 15 to 25 kg.
GRFs were measured for both groups at walk and trot using PSW. Muscle mass and joint angles were measured. Data were analyzed using SAS version 9.4. Two groups were compared using 2-sample t test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Fisher exact test.
GRFs were successfully measured in both dog groups for walk and trot. Medium dogs had larger limb girth, more peak pressure, max force, increased stance, swing time, and larger stride length compared with small dogs. Stance time increased as DH increased at walk and trot (r = 0.854, P < .001; r = 0.876, P < .001). Stance time increased as BW (body weight) increased at walk and trot (r = 0.887, P < .001; r = 0.858 P < .001). Inconclusive data was obtained for stride acceleration and velocity. The handler side did not influence results (P > .05). Range of motion (ROM) did not differ among groups.
Results suggested that PSW is a reliable device for small and medium dogs. At walk and at a trot, GRF are smaller in small dogs compared with medium dogs, suggesting that normal reference data for PSW need to take BW and DH into account.
Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of
physical examination, fine-needle aspiration, and needle
core biopsy of the regional lymph nodes for evidence
of metastasis in dogs and cats with solid
Animals—37 dogs and 7 cats.
Procedure—Regional lymph nodes were evaluated
by means of physical examination (palpation), fineneedle
aspiration, and needle core biopsy. Results
were compared with results of histologic examination
of the entire lymph node, the current standard.
Results—Tumors included 18 sarcomas, 16 carcinomas,
7 mast cell tumors, and 3 other tumors.
Carcinomas were more likely to have metastasized to
the regional lymph node (7/16 animals) than were sarcomas
(2/18). Sensitivity and specificity of physical
examination were 60 and 72%, respectively.
Sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination of
fine-needle aspirates were 100 and 96%, respectively.
Sensitivity and specificity of histologic examination
of needle core biopsy specimens were 64 and 96%,
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested
that fine-needle aspiration may be a sensitive
and specific method of evaluating the regional lymph
nodes in dogs and cats with solid tumors, because
results correlated well with results of histologic examination
of the entire lymph node. Physical examination
alone was not a reliable method and should not be
used to decide whether to aspirate or biopsy the
regional lymph nodes. (J Am Vet Med Assoc