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  • Author or Editor: Anke Langenbach x
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To study ground reaction forces (GRF) and temporospatial parameters for small and medium size dogs using a pressure sensitive walkway (PSW). We hypothesized that, at a given speed, small dogs would have shorter stance time than medium dogs and that dog height (DH) would influence GRF.


30 healthy, sound dogs were divided into 2 groups, small < 15 kg and medium dog group weighing 15 to 25 kg.


GRFs were measured for both groups at walk and trot using PSW. Muscle mass and joint angles were measured. Data were analyzed using SAS version 9.4. Two groups were compared using 2-sample t test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Fisher exact test.


GRFs were successfully measured in both dog groups for walk and trot. Medium dogs had larger limb girth, more peak pressure, max force, increased stance, swing time, and larger stride length compared with small dogs. Stance time increased as DH increased at walk and trot (r = 0.854, P < .001; r = 0.876, P < .001). Stance time increased as BW (body weight) increased at walk and trot (r = 0.887, P < .001; r = 0.858 P < .001). Inconclusive data was obtained for stride acceleration and velocity. The handler side did not influence results (P > .05). Range of motion (ROM) did not differ among groups.


Results suggested that PSW is a reliable device for small and medium dogs. At walk and at a trot, GRF are smaller in small dogs compared with medium dogs, suggesting that normal reference data for PSW need to take BW and DH into account.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of physical examination, fine-needle aspiration, and needle core biopsy of the regional lymph nodes for evidence of metastasis in dogs and cats with solid tumors.

Design—Case series.

Animals—37 dogs and 7 cats.

Procedure—Regional lymph nodes were evaluated by means of physical examination (palpation), fineneedle aspiration, and needle core biopsy. Results were compared with results of histologic examination of the entire lymph node, the current standard.

Results—Tumors included 18 sarcomas, 16 carcinomas, 7 mast cell tumors, and 3 other tumors. Carcinomas were more likely to have metastasized to the regional lymph node (7/16 animals) than were sarcomas (2/18). Sensitivity and specificity of physical examination were 60 and 72%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates were 100 and 96%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of histologic examination of needle core biopsy specimens were 64 and 96%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that fine-needle aspiration may be a sensitive and specific method of evaluating the regional lymph nodes in dogs and cats with solid tumors, because results correlated well with results of histologic examination of the entire lymph node. Physical examination alone was not a reliable method and should not be used to decide whether to aspirate or biopsy the regional lymph nodes. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1424—1428)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association