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  • Author or Editor: Anje G. Bauck x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine bicarbonate (HCO3 ) secretion ex vivo in the equine large colon to determine any differences between the right dorsal colon (RDC) and right ventral colon (RVC). The effect of phenylbutazone (PBZ) on HCO3 secretion was examined in the RDC.

ANIMALS

14 healthy horses.

PROCEDURES

In anesthetized horses (n = 10), segments of mucosa from RDC and RVC were harvested to measure HCO3 secretion ex vivo with the pH Stat method. The effect of PBZ on HCO3 secretion in the RDC was studied in 4 additional horses.

RESULTS

Three distinct mechanisms of HCO3 secretion previously described in a murine model were confirmed in the equine colon. The RDC had a greater capacity for electrogenic, Cl-independent HCO3 secretion than the RVC (P = 0.04). In the RDC, all HCO3 secretion was decreased by PBZ (P < 0.02) but was not studied in the RVC because of low baseline secretion.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Secretion of HCO3 by the RDC could play a pivotal role in equine colon physiology, because intense microbial fermentation in this site could require HCO3 secretion to buffer short-chain fatty acids. Inhibition of this secretion by PBZ could interfere with mucosal buffering and predispose to changes associated with right dorsal colitis.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Right dorsal colitis causes chronic colic associated with long-term treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study was designed to determine if NSAIDs could inhibit anion transporters that protect against intestinal mucosal injury in other species.

ANIMALS

20 healthy horses.

METHODS

The effects of indomethacin (INDO) and firocoxib (FIR), on short-circuit current (Isc) in mucosa from the right dorsal colon (RDC) and right ventral colon (RVC) were measured in Ussing chambers by standard electrophysiological techniques. Immunohistochemical methods were used to detect apoptosis (caspase-3) with these NSAIDs and phenylbutazone (PBZ) and to locate the NKCC1 transporter.

RESULTS

The Isc in RDC and RVC incubated with INDO or FIR was increased almost 3-fold (P < .0001) by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) through a system inhibited by loop diuretics (P < .0001). Although these findings and anion replacement studies were consistent with anion secretion, the RDC also displayed an Isc response suggestive of a unique transporter apparently absent in RVC or NSAID-free solutions. In RDC, FIR, INDO, and PBZ induced apoptosis in the lower half of crypts. However, significant differences in apoptotic index were recorded in the RDC between NSAID-treated and control tissues (no NSAID).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The effects of NSAIDs on Isc were consistent with reduced anion secretion, which could represent the pharmacological equivalent of the transport failure responsible for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) in other species. Failure of anion secretion could interfere with buffering acid from intraluminal fermentation, which could suggest a treatment target for right dorsal colitis.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To examine effects of continuous rate infusion of lidocaine on transmural neutrophil infiltration in equine intestine subjected to manipulation only and remote to ischemic intestine.

ANIMALS 14 healthy horses.

PROCEDURES Ventral midline celiotomy was performed (time 0). Mild ischemia was induced in segments of jejunum and large colon. A 1-m segment of jejunum was manipulated by massaging the jejunal wall 10 times. Horses received lidocaine (n = 7) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (7) throughout anesthesia. Biopsy specimens were collected and used to assess tissue injury, neutrophil influx, cyclooxygenase expression, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression at 0, 1, and 4 hours after manipulation and ischemia. Transepithelial resistance (TER) and mannitol flux were measured by use of Ussing chambers.

RESULTS Lidocaine did not consistently decrease neutrophil infiltration in ischemic, manipulated, or control tissues at 4 hours. Lidocaine significantly reduced circular muscle and overall scores for cyclooxygenase-2 expression in manipulated tissues. Manipulated tissues had significantly less HIF-1α expression at 4 hours than did control tissues. Mucosa from manipulated and control segments obtained at 4 hours had lower TER and greater mannitol flux than did control tissues at 0 hours. Lidocaine did not significantly decrease calprotectin expression. Severity of neutrophil infiltration was similar in control, ischemic, and manipulated tissues at 4 hours.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Manipulated jejunum did not have a significantly greater increase in neutrophil infiltration, compared with 4-hour control (nonmanipulated) jejunum remote to sites of manipulation, ischemia, and reperfusion. Lidocaine did not consistently reduce neutrophil infiltration in jejunum.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether anesthesia type (sedation or general anesthesia) affects kid survival to discharge in caprine cesarean sections (C-sections).

ANIMALS

Retrospective cohort of 99 caprine C-sections (2011–2021).

PROCEDURES

All surgeries were performed via left flank laparotomy in right lateral recumbency. The number of kids alive at presentation, surgery, and discharge was recorded. Kids that were dead on presentation or euthanized intraoperatively were excluded. Goats were classified as “healthy” (American Society of Anesthesiologists status ≤ 2) or “sick” (≥ 3).

RESULTS

Kid survival was significantly higher for C-sections performed under sedation (47/52 [90%]) than for C-sections performed under general anesthesia (16/24 [66%]; P = .004). Relative risk was 1.4 and odds ratio was 4.7.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Performing C-sections in sedated goats may improve kid survival rates over those under general anesthesia.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

The number of companion pigs in the US is increasing, as is the frequency with which they present to primary companion care practices. However, pigs are often an understudied species in veterinary curricula, and many students graduate from veterinary school with minimal porcine handling experience. Coupled with the poor peripheral vascular access associated with pigs, this presents a challenge for many new graduates and other primary care veterinarians seeking to improve their knowledge of porcine handling, anatomy, and medical care. Furthermore, much of the available veterinary literature regarding porcine venous access is dated, limited to technical notes, or inaccessible to many primary care veterinarians. This review aims to supplement this lack of knowledge by discussing techniques in restraint, sedation, venipuncture, and catheterization of companion pigs as a reference for veterinarians and researchers alike.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association