To evaluate a staged technique of immediate decompressive and delayed surgical treatment for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in dogs.
41 client-owned dogs with confirmed GDV from 2012 through 2016.
Medical record data were collected regarding patient signalment, diagnostic test results, gastric lavage findings, surgical findings, and short-term survival status. For all dogs, gastric decompression was performed by orogastric intubation and gastric lavage in the same anesthetic episode. If this stage was successful, subsequent corrective surgery (laparotomy and gastropexy) was delayed and performed in a second anesthetic episode.
6 dogs underwent corrective surgery in the same anesthetic session as for decompression and stabilization, 2 of which had gastric necrosis. Thirty-five dogs underwent corrective surgery in a second anesthetic episode a mean of 22.3 hours (range, 5.25 to 69.75 hours) after presentation, during which gastric necrosis was identified in 2 dogs. The mortality rate for delayed-surgery patients was 9% (3/35). Time from presentation to surgery was not associated with surgeon subjective assessment of gastric health status or mortality rate. Intraoperative identification of gastric necrosis was associated with nonsurvival. Single plasma lactate concentrations and percentage change in serial lactate concentrations were associated with intraoperative gastric health status and mortality rate.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The observed mortality rate for delayed-surgery patients was comparable to rates reported for other GDV treatment techniques. Results suggested that delaying corrective surgery is possible for certain dogs, but careful case selection would be important and no reliable preoperative case selection criteria were identified. Additional research is needed to further investigate the potential risks and benefits of staged versus immediate surgical treatment of GDV in dogs.
Animals—151 dogs treated surgically for GDV and 302 control dogs with no history of GDV.
Procedures—Computerized records of dogs evaluated via exploratory laparotomy or abdominal ultrasonography were searched, and dogs with GDV and dogs without GDV (control dogs) were identified. Two control dogs were matched with respect to age, body weight, sex, neuter status, and breed to each dog with GDV. Data were collected on the presence or absence of the spleen for both dogs with GDV and control dogs. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of previous splenectomy with GDV.
Results—6 (4%) dogs in the GDV group and 3 (1%) dogs in the control group had a history of previous splenectomy. The odds of GDV in dogs with a history of previous splenectomy in this population of dogs were 5.3 times those of dogs without a history of previous splenectomy (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 26.8).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For the patients in the present study, there was an increased odds of GDV in dogs with a history of splenectomy. Prophylactic gastropexy may be considered in dogs undergoing a splenectomy, particularly if other risk factors for GDV are present.
Objective—To determine the signalment, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) plate type, clinical staging information, treatment, and oncological outcome in dogs that developed osteosarcoma at the proximal aspect of the tibia following TPLO and to calculate the interval between TPLO and osteosarcoma diagnosis.
Design—Multi-institutional retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records from 8 participating institutions were searched for dogs that developed osteosarcoma (confirmed through cytologic or histologic evaluation) at previous TPLO sites. Signalment, TPLO details, staging tests, treatment data, and outcome information were recorded. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and disease-free intervals and survival times were evaluated by means of Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Results—29 dogs met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 9.2 years and mean weight was 45.1 kg (99.2 lb) at the time of osteosarcoma diagnosis. Most dogs had swelling over the proximal aspect of the tibia (17/21) and lameness of the affected limb (28/29). The mean interval between TPLO and osteosarcoma diagnosis was 5.3 years. One type of cast stainless steel TPLO plate was used in most (18) dogs; the remaining dogs had received plates of wrought stainless steel (n = 4) or unrecorded type (7). Twenty-three of 29 dogs underwent treatment for osteosarcoma. Median survival time for 10 dogs that underwent amputation of the affected limb and received ≥ 1 chemotherapeutic treatment was 313 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results supported that osteosarcoma should be a differential diagnosis for dogs with a history of TPLO that later develop lameness and swelling at the previous surgical site. Oncological outcome following amputation and chemotherapy appeared to be similar to outcomes previously reported for dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.