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  • Author or Editor: Angela E. Frimberger x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate factors for associations with duration of first remission and survival time in dogs ≥ 14 years of age with stage III to V multicentric lymphoma.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 29 dogs ≥ 14 years of age with multicentric lymphoma treated with a chemotherapy protocol at dosages used for younger dogs (n = 22) or with prednisolone alone (7).

PROCEDURES Various data were collected from the medical records, including treatment response and related adverse events. Survival analysis was performed to determine duration of first remission and survival time (from start of chemotherapy), and these outcomes were compared between various groupings.

RESULTS The 7 (24%) dogs that received prednisolone alone had a median survival time of 27 days and were excluded from further analysis. Complete clinical remission was achieved in 21 of the 22 (95%) remaining dogs; 1 (5%) achieved partial remission. Median duration of first remission was 181 days. Anemic dogs had a briefer remission period (median, 110 days) than nonanemic dogs (median, 228 days). Median survival time for all 22 dogs was 202 days, with estimated 1- and 2-year survival rates of 31% and 5%, respectively. Six (27%) dogs had adverse events of chemotherapy classified as grade 3 or worse.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Survival time was substantially longer in dogs treated with a chemotherapy protocol versus prednisolone alone. Findings suggested that the evaluated chemotherapy protocols for lymphoma were beneficial for and tolerated by very elderly dogs, just as by younger dogs, and need not be withheld, or dosages adjusted, because of age alone.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To estimate survival time for dogs with small intestinal adenocarcinoma (SIACA) following tumor excision with or without adjuvant chemotherapy and to identify factors associated with survival time.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with a nested cohort study.

ANIMALS 29 client-owned dogs with surgically resected, histologically diagnosed SIACA.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data collected regarding dog signalment; clinical signs; physical examination findings; PCV; serum total solids concentration; diagnostic imaging results; tumor size, location, and histologic characteristics (serosal extension, lymphatic invasion, surgical margins, and lymph node metastasis); type of adjuvant chemotherapy; NSAID administration; and survival time. Variables were assessed for associations with survival time and hazard rate via Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses.

RESULTS Overall median survival time for dogs with SIACA following tumor excision was 544 days (95% confidence interval, 369 to 719 days). Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, the 1- and 2-year survival rates were 60% and 36%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, only age category was an independent predictor of survival over the follow-up period. Dogs < 8 years of age had a significantly longer median survival time (1,193 days) than dogs ≥ 8 years (488 days). Lymph node metastasis, adjuvant chemotherapy, NSAID administration, and other assessed variables were not associated with survival time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that SIACA in dogs carries a fair prognosis following excision, even when lymph node metastasis is present. Prospective studies are warranted to better characterize the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy or NSAID administration on survival time.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine histologic and clinical factors associated with survival time in dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy and a chemotherapy protocol in which an anthracycline was alternated with lomustine.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 30 dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma.

PROCEDURES Medical records of 3 facilities were reviewed to identify dogs treated for stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma between June 2011 and October 2014. Information collected included signalment, disease staging data, whether anemia was present, date of splenectomy, chemotherapy protocol, adverse effects, and date of death or last follow-up. Histologic slides were reviewed and scored by pathologists. Associations between variables of interest and survival data were evaluated statistically.

RESULTS Median survival time for all dogs was 158 days (range, 55 to 560 days), and the 1-year survival rate was 16%. On multivariate analysis, only the histologically determined mitotic score was significantly associated with survival time. The median survival time of 292 days for dogs with a mitotic score of 0 (< 11 mitoses/10 hpf; n = 9) was significantly longer than that for dogs with higher scores (indicating higher mitotic rates); the 1-year survival rate for these dogs was 42%.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that future studies should take histologic factors, particularly mitotic rate, as well as tumor stage into account when assessing treatment effects on survival time of dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of sterile hemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) in tumor-bearing dogs concurrently treated with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy and furosemide.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 55 dogs.

PROCEDURES Record databases of 2 specialty practices were searched to identify dogs treated with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in conjunction with furosemide for a minimum of 28 days between January 2009 and December 2015. Information extracted from the records included signalment, tumor diagnosis, cyclophosphamide and furosemide dosages, and concurrent medications. Confirmed SHC was defined as the presence of gross or microscopic hematuria and clinical signs associated with lower urinary tract disease in the absence of infection or neoplasia of the urinary tract; the definition for suspected SHC was the same, except the absence of infection or neoplasia of the urinary tract was not confirmed.

RESULTS Cyclophosphamide dosage varied from 6.5 to 18.6 mg/m2 once daily to 6.3 to 49.2 mg/m2 every other day. Median duration of cyclophosphamide administration was 272 days (range, 28 to 1,393 days). Median cumulative dose of cyclophosphamide administered was 2,898 mg/m2 (range, 224 to 14,725 mg/m2). Median furosemide dose was 1.4 mg/kg (0.64 mg/lb). Confirmed or suspected SHC was identified in 2 of 55 (3.6%) dogs. Cyclophosphamide administration was discontinued for the dog with confirmed SHC but not the dog with suspected SHC.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that oral administration of furosemide in conjunction with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy was associated with a low incidence of SHC, which suggested that furosemide may protect against cyclophosphamide-induced SHC.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 17-year-old Friesian gelding was examined at a referral hospital because of a 1-month history of mild exercise intolerance and marked lymphocytosis.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Physical examination revealed no peripheral lymphadenopathy or other abnormalities. Results of an abdominal palpation examination per rectum and thoracic and abdominal ultrasonographic examinations were unremarkable. B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was diagnosed on the basis of severe lymphocytosis and positive expression of the B-cell marker CD20 by lymphocytes in the bone marrow and peripheral blood.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Treatment with prednisolone (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], PO, every other day) and chlorambucil (20 mg/m2, PO, every 3 weeks for 2 doses, then every 2 weeks) was initially associated with improvement in clinical signs and a decrease in the lymphocyte count. However, 3 weeks after administration of the first dose of chlorambucil, the lymphocyte count began to increase. One week later, the horse developed episodes of recurrent fever and the lymphocyte count continued to increase. Despite continued administration of the prednisolone-chlorambucil protocol, the horse's clinical condition deteriorated rapidly, and it was euthanized 6 weeks after initial examination at the referral hospital because of a poor prognosis. A necropsy was not performed.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

B-cell CLL has been infrequently described in horses. This report was the first to describe the use of chemotherapy, albeit unsuccessful, for the treatment of B-cell CLL in a horse. This information should be useful for guiding expectations for prognosis and management of other horses affected with the disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prognostic factors for survival and tumor recurrence in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in the perineal and inguinal regions treated surgically with or without adjunctive radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—68 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs with histologically confirmed MCTs in the perineal region, inguinal region, or both treated surgically with or without adjunctive radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both were reviewed.

Results—Mean tumor-free interval was 1,635 days (median not reached), and 1- and 2-year tumor-free rates were 79% and 71%, respectively. Median survival time was 1,111 days (mean, 1,223 days), and 1- and 2-year survival rates were 79% and 61%, respectively. Factors that negatively influenced survival time were age at diagnosis, tumor recurrence, and treatment with lomustine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dogs with MCTs in the inguinal and perineal regions, if appropriately treated, may have survival times and tumor-free intervals similar to dogs with MCTs in other locations. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:401–408)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association