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  • Author or Editor: Ane Nødtvedt x
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Objective—To identify housing- and exercise-related risk factors associated with the development of hip dysplasia (HD) as determined by radiographic evaluation in Newfoundlands, Labrador Retrievers, Leonbergers, and Irish Wolfhounds in Norway.

Animals—501 client-owned dogs from 103 litters.

Procedures—Dogs were assessed from birth until official radiographic screening for HD at 12 (Labrador Retriever [n = 133] and Irish Wolfhound [63]) or 18 (Newfoundland [125] and Leonberger [180]) months of age. Information regarding housing and exercise conditions during the preweaning and postweaning periods was obtained with questionnaires. Multivariable random effects logistic regression models were used to identify housing- and exercise-related risk factors associated with the development of radiographically detectable HD.

Results—Puppies walking on stairs from birth to 3 months of age had an increased risk of developing HD. Factors associated with a decreased risk of developing HD included off-leash exercise from birth to 3 months of age, birth during the spring and summer, and birth on a farm. Significant clustering of dogs with HD was detected within litters.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that puppies ≤ 3 months old should not be allowed access to stairs, but should be allowed outdoor exercise on soft ground in moderately rough terrain to decrease the risk for developing radiographically detectable HD. These findings could be used as practical recommendations for the prevention of HD in Newfoundlands, Labrador Retrievers, Leonbergers, and Irish Wolfhounds.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the hemostatic response to surgery and compare the response for ovariohysterectomy with that for ovariectomy and to evaluate the usefulness of thromboelastography on plasma samples.

Animals—42 female dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to undergo ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery and stored at −80°C for subsequent analysis. Plasma samples were subjected to thromboelastography after thawing. In addition, coagulation variables were measured, including concentrations of von Willebrand factor antigen, fibrinogen, antithrombin, and protein C; activity of factor VIII; activated partial thromboplastin time; prothrombin time; and thrombin time. The fibrinolytic response was assessed via concentrations of D-dimer, plasminogen, and α-2-antiplasmin (plasmin inhibitor).

Results—Substantial hemostatic and fibrinolytic activation was evident after surgery in both groups, as characterized by significantly increased global clot strength and an overall hypercoagulable state at 4 hours after surgery in addition to decreases in von Willebrand factor antigen and factor VIII concentrations and shortened prothrombin and thrombin times. The dogs also typically had activation of the fibrinolytic system, as evidenced by increased postoperative concentrations of D-dimer, plasminogen, and plasmin inhibitor. Differences between the 2 groups could not be detected for any variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Elective surgery with limited tissue trauma induced hemostatic activation in dogs, which led to hypercoagulability after surgery. A difference between the ovariohysterectomy and ovariectomy groups was not detected. Thromboelastography can be used on plasma samples and may be useful for evaluating patterns over time.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To characterize acute inflammatory and hemostatic surgical stress responses following castration in cats and to evaluate whether the addition of local anesthesia to the anesthetic protocol attenuates these responses.

Animals—39 male cats.

Procedures—Cats undergoing castration were randomly assigned to 2 groups: both groups underwent surgery with general anesthesia, and 1 group additionally received a local anesthetic (lidocaine [2.0 mg/kg in total, divided intratesticularly and SC]) prior to incision. Blood samples were collected after anesthetic induction (baseline) and 1, 5, and 24 hours later. Thromboelastography and coagulation variables (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT] and prothrombin time [PT]) were analyzed; fibrinolysis was assessed with plasma D-dimer concentrations. The acute-phase response was evaluated via measurement of plasma fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (last time point, 28 hours) concentrations. Hematologic variables were analyzed at baseline and 1, 5, and 24 hours later.

Results—Evidence of hemostatic and inflammatory activation after surgery was detected in both groups. Maximum amplitude and G (global clot strength) were significantly increased at 24 hours, and significant, but not clinically relevant, decreases were detected in aPTT at 5 and 24 hours and in PT at 24 hours, compared with baseline values. Serum amyloid A concentrations were significantly higher at 24 and 28 hours than at baseline, and plasma fibrinogen concentration was significantly increased at 24 hours; WBC and RBC counts and Hct were significantly increased at multiple time points. No differences between groups were detected for any variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Castration appeared to induce hypercoagulability and an acute-phase inflammatory response in cats. Local anesthesia with lidocaine did not attenuate this response.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To identify minimally invasive biomarkers to help differentiate dogs with gastric carcinoma from those with chronic gastritis.

DESIGN Prospective study.

ANIMALS 15 dogs with gastric carcinoma, 29 dogs with chronic gastritis, and 7 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs with clinical signs of upper gastrointestinal tract disease for > 14 days that underwent gastroscopy or necropsy for collection of gastric biopsy specimens for histologic evaluation were prospectively enrolled. Gastric carcinoma and chronic gastritis were diagnosed on the basis of histologic findings. Additionally, gastric biopsy specimens were collected endoscopically from 7 healthy (control) dogs while they were anesthetized for a routine neutering procedure. Prior to being anesthetized for gastroscopy or euthanized, all dogs underwent a physical examination, and a blood sample was collected for quantification of select serum biomarker concentrations. Histologic findings, body condition score (BCS), and serum biomarker concentrations were compared among the 3 groups.

RESULTS Dogs with gastric carcinoma were significantly older and had a significantly lower BCS, lower serum folate concentration, and greater serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, compared with dogs with chronic gastritis and control dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that age > 8 years, BCS < 4, serum CRP concentration > 25 mg/L, and an abnormally low serum folate concentration might be useful noninvasive biomarkers for identification of dogs with gastric carcinoma. For underweight older dogs with signs of upper gastrointestinal tract disease and high serum CRP and low serum folate concentrations, gastric biopsy specimens should be obtained and evaluated so that a prompt definitive diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment initiated.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association