Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Andris J. Kaneps x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Regenerative medicine therapies have become significant tools for treatment of joint, soft tissue, and a variety of other conditions in animals and humans. Regenerative medicine aims to restore form and function of injured tissues using the body’s own resources such as cells, fluids (ie, plasma and serum), and their resulting anti-inflammatory and prohealing cytokines. Platelet-rich plasma and other hemoderivatives have application for joint disorders such as osteoarthritis, cartilage injury, synovitis, and soft tissue injuries. These therapies achieve anti-inflammatory and healing effects without the use of corticosteroid therapy. This response is an advantage when treating young animals or human patients, and in animals with metabolic or hormonal issues such as equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Also, these therapies may have beneficial effects when traditional IA treatments such as corticosteroids and/or hyaluronan are no longer effective at reducing joint inflammation and pain. Examples of hemoderivative regenerative therapies to be discussed include platelet-rich plasma, autologous conditioned serum, autologous protein solution, and α-2 macroglobulin.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe the anatomy of the sternum in llamas, define the surgical approach to the sternum for collection of cancellous bone graft tissue, and compare the histologic appearance of graft tissue obtained from the sternum with that obtained from the proximal portion of the tibia.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

12 llamas, 3 to 19 years old, that had been submitted for necropsy.

Procedure

Radiographs were taken of the sternum and left tibia of the llamas. Measurements of the sternum were determined from the radiographs and adjusted for magnification. Sternebrae volumes were estimated from these measurements. Anatomic dissections to the center of the fourth sternebra and the proximal portion of the tibia were made, and a surgical approach to the sternum was developed. Cancellous graft tissue was obtained from each site and submitted for histologic evaluation.

Results

Sternebrae 3, 4, and 5 were significantly larger in volume than the other sternebrae. The ventral aspect of the fourth sternebra was readily accessed for removal of graft tissue by making a 6-cm-long ventral midline incision centered 17 cm craniad to the xiphoid. Mean soft tissue thickness overlying the ventral aspect of the fourth sternebra was 3.1 cm. More tissue was obtained from the sternal (mean, 9.11 g) than from the tibial (mean, 5.16 g) sites. Sternal graft tissue consisted of trabecular bone spicules with predominantly hematopoietic marrow, whereas tibial tissue consisted of trabecular bone spicules with only fatty marrow.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The fourth sternebra in llamas is readily accessible for obtaining autogenous cancellous bone graft tissue that consists of predominantly hematopoietic marrow. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:362–365)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether iontophoretic administration of dexamethasone to horses results in detectable concentrations in synovial fluid, plasma, and urine.

Animals—6 adult mares.

Procedure—Iontophoresis was used to administer dexamethasone. Treatments (4 mA for 20 minutes) were administered to a tarsocrural joint of each mare. The drug electrode contained 3 ml of dexamethasone sodium phosphate at a concentration of 4 or 10 mg/ml. Samples of synovial fluid, blood, and urine were obtained before and 0.5, 4, 8, and 24 hours after each treatment. All samples were tested for dexamethasone using an ELISA. Synovial fluid also was evaluated for dexamethasone, using high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—The lower and upper limits of detection for dexamethasone in synovial fluid with the ELISA were 0.21 and 1.5 ng/ml, respectively. Dexamethasone administered at a concentration of 10 mg/ml was detected by the ELISA in synovial fluid of 5 mares from 0.5 to 24 hours and in urine of 4 mares from 0.5 to 8 hours after each treatment, but it was not detected in plasma. Mean synovial fluid concentration of dexamethasone was 1.01 ng/ml. Dexamethasone administered at a concentration of 4 mg/ml was detected by the ELISA in urine of 2 mares at 0.5 and 4 hours after treatment, but it was not detected in synovial fluid or plasma.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Iontophoresis cannot be considered an effective method for delivery of dexamethasone to synovial fluid of horses, because drug concentrations achieved in this study were less than therapeutic concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:11–14)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the buffy coat and apheresis methods for preparation of platelet concentrates from equine blood by comparing platelet and growth factor concentrations.

Animals—15 mature mixed-breed geldings.

Procedure—Whole blood samples were collected and processed by use of a buffy coat or apheresis method to obtain platelet poor and platelet concentrated fractions. The PCV, WBC count, and platelet count were compared among whole blood samples, platelet poor fractions, concentrates obtained by use of the apheresis method (ie, apheresis platelet concentrates), and concentrates obtained by use of the buffy coat method (ie, buffy coat platelet concentrates). Concentrations of transforming growth factor- β (ie, TGF-β1 and TGF-β2) and insulin-like growth factor were compared between buffy coat and apheresis platelet concentrates.

Results—Platelet concentrations were 8.9-fold and 5.2-fold greater in buffy coat and apheresis platelet concentrates, respectively, compared with whole blood. Platelet concentrations were 13.1-fold greater in filtered apheresis platelet concentrates, compared with whole blood. TGF-β1 concentrations were 2.8- fold and 3.1-fold greater in buffy coat and apheresis platelet concentrates, respectively, and TGF-β1 concentrations were 10.5-fold greater in filtered apheresis platelet concentrates, compared with whole blood. TGF-β2 concentrations were 3.6-fold greater in apheresis platelet concentrates, compared with whole blood. Platelet concentrations correlated with growth factor concentrations across all blood and platelet fractions. White blood cell counts had a significant positive correlation with TGF-β1 concentration in buffy coat platelet concentrates.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Platelets and TGF-β1 can be concentrated reliably from equine blood by use of buffy coat or apheresis methods, without modification of the protocols used for humans. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:924–930)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association