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- Author or Editor: Andrew S. Peregrine x
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OBJECTIVE To determine pet-related management factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in a population of pet dogs.
SAMPLE 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario, Canada.
PROCEDURES From October 2005 through May 2006, dogs and households in Ontario, Canada, were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Fecal samples were submitted for culture of Salmonella spp and E coli, which provided 515 bacterial isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for household and dog were created to identify pet-related management factors associated with antimicrobial resistance.
RESULTS Bacterial species, feeding a homemade diet or adding homemade food to the diet, feeding a raw diet or adding anything raw to the diet, feeding a homemade raw food diet, and feeding raw chicken in the past week were significant risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in this population of dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, several potentially important pet-related risk factors for the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and E coli in pet dogs were identified. Further evaluation of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in dogs may lead to development of evidence-based guidelines for safe and responsible dog ownership and management to protect the public, especially pet owners who are immunocompromised.
Objective—To determine whether time until culling or risk of culling was associated with Neospora caninum serostatus among Holstein cattle in dairy herds in Ontario.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—3,412 cows in 56 herds.
Procedure—Blood samples were collected, and serum was tested for antibodies against N caninum. Information on cows that were culled was collected during the 1- to 2-year period that producers were unaware of serostatus of individual cows in their herds.
Results—Herd prevalence of N caninum-seropositive cows ranged from 0 to 68.3% (median, 7.0%). During the time of the study, 184 of 359 (51.3%) N caninum-seropositive cows were culled, compared with 1,388 of 3,053 (45.5%) seronegative cows. Mean time from blood sample collection to culling for seronegative cows (289 days; 95% confidence interval, 280 to 299 days) was not significantly different from mean time for seropositive cows (296 days; 95% confidence interval, 269 to 323 days). Survival analysis indicated that N caninum serostatus was not associated with time to culling or risk of culling.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that N caninum serostatus of Holstein cows in Ontario was not significantly associated with either time to culling or risk of culling. Thus, N caninum serostatus alone should not be used to determine whether cows should be culled. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1165–1168)
Objective—To determine whether Neospora caninum serostatus was associated with milk production among Holstein cattle in Ontario.
Design—Case-control study and cross-sectional observational study.
Animals—3,702 Holstein cows in 83 herds (casecontrol study) and 3,162 Holstein cows in 57 herds.
Procedure—Herds in the case-control study were grouped on the basis of N caninum abortion status. Herds in the observational study were considered representative of Ontario dairy herds. The N caninum serostatus of individual cows was determined with a kinetic ELISA. Milk production was modeled to compare seropositive with seronegative animals while controlling for parity, days since parturition, and herd clustering.
Results—In the case-control study, 305-day milk production of seropositive cows was significantly less than milk production of seronegative cows in herds with abortions attributable to N caninum infection and in herds with abortions attributable to pathogens other than N caninum, but not in herds without abortion problems. In the observational study, 305-day milk production for seropositive cows was not significantly different from milk production of seronegative cows.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the association between N caninum serostatus and milk production in Ontario Holstein dairy cattle may depend on abortion status of the herd. In herds with abortion problems, regardless of cause, N caninum-seropositive cattle produced less milk, whereas in herds without abortion problems, N caninum-seropositive cattle produced the same amount of milk as seronegative cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1160–1164)