Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: Andrew S. Peregrine x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective

To characterize the pharmacokinetics of diminazene in plasma and pseudo-afferent lymph of East Africa × Galla goats.

Design

The efferent prescapular lymphatic duct of 3 goats was cannulated 8 weeks after surgical removal of the lymph node. Thereafter, 3.5 mg of diminazene base/ kg of body weight was administered to these goats and to 3 noncannulated goats.

Procedure

Using high-performance liquid chromatography, concentration of diminazene was determined in plasma and lymph collected up to 96 hours after treatment.

Results

Maximal concentrations of diminazene in plasma of noncannulated goats (median [range], 4.30 [4.28 to 5.01] μg/ml), plasma of cannulated goats (3.94 [2.94 to 4.06] μg/ml), and lymph (1 06 [0.73 to 1.86] μg/ ml) were significantly different (P <0.05); values in lymph were considerably lower than those in plasma from noncannulated and cannulated animals. Time to reach maximal concentration did not differ significantly between lymph and plasma of noncannulated and cannulated goats. Over the first 24 hours after drug administration, concentration of diminazene in plasma of noncannulated goats was generally higher than that in lymph, but thereafter was similar. Apparent volume of distribution of diminazene in the plasma of noncannulated (2.57 [1.93 to 2.60] L/kg) and cannulated (2.30 [1.04 to 2.40] L/kg) goats did not differ significantly. Penetration ratio of diminazene into lymph, compared with plasma, of cannulated goats was 1.69:1.

Conclusions

Disposition of diminazene in goats is characterized by higher concentration in plasma than in lymph. However, the drug persists longer in lymph than in plasma.

Clinical Relevance

The longer persistence of diminazene in lymph than in plasma may account for the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of diminazene in the early stage, compared with later stages, of a tsetse fly-transmitted trypanosome infection. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:710–714)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether time until culling or risk of culling was associated with Neospora caninum serostatus among Holstein cattle in dairy herds in Ontario.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—3,412 cows in 56 herds.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected, and serum was tested for antibodies against N caninum. Information on cows that were culled was collected during the 1- to 2-year period that producers were unaware of serostatus of individual cows in their herds.

Results—Herd prevalence of N caninum-seropositive cows ranged from 0 to 68.3% (median, 7.0%). During the time of the study, 184 of 359 (51.3%) N caninum-seropositive cows were culled, compared with 1,388 of 3,053 (45.5%) seronegative cows. Mean time from blood sample collection to culling for seronegative cows (289 days; 95% confidence interval, 280 to 299 days) was not significantly different from mean time for seropositive cows (296 days; 95% confidence interval, 269 to 323 days). Survival analysis indicated that N caninum serostatus was not associated with time to culling or risk of culling.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that N caninum serostatus of Holstein cows in Ontario was not significantly associated with either time to culling or risk of culling. Thus, N caninum serostatus alone should not be used to determine whether cows should be culled. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1165–1168)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine pet-related management factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in a population of pet dogs.

SAMPLE 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario, Canada.

PROCEDURES From October 2005 through May 2006, dogs and households in Ontario, Canada, were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Fecal samples were submitted for culture of Salmonella spp and E coli, which provided 515 bacterial isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for household and dog were created to identify pet-related management factors associated with antimicrobial resistance.

RESULTS Bacterial species, feeding a homemade diet or adding homemade food to the diet, feeding a raw diet or adding anything raw to the diet, feeding a homemade raw food diet, and feeding raw chicken in the past week were significant risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in this population of dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, several potentially important pet-related risk factors for the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and E coli in pet dogs were identified. Further evaluation of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in dogs may lead to development of evidence-based guidelines for safe and responsible dog ownership and management to protect the public, especially pet owners who are immunocompromised.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether Neospora caninum serostatus was associated with milk production among Holstein cattle in Ontario.

Design—Case-control study and cross-sectional observational study.

Animals—3,702 Holstein cows in 83 herds (casecontrol study) and 3,162 Holstein cows in 57 herds.

Procedure—Herds in the case-control study were grouped on the basis of N caninum abortion status. Herds in the observational study were considered representative of Ontario dairy herds. The N caninum serostatus of individual cows was determined with a kinetic ELISA. Milk production was modeled to compare seropositive with seronegative animals while controlling for parity, days since parturition, and herd clustering.

Results—In the case-control study, 305-day milk production of seropositive cows was significantly less than milk production of seronegative cows in herds with abortions attributable to N caninum infection and in herds with abortions attributable to pathogens other than N caninum, but not in herds without abortion problems. In the observational study, 305-day milk production for seropositive cows was not significantly different from milk production of seronegative cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the association between N caninum serostatus and milk production in Ontario Holstein dairy cattle may depend on abortion status of the herd. In herds with abortion problems, regardless of cause, N caninum-seropositive cattle produced less milk, whereas in herds without abortion problems, N caninum-seropositive cattle produced the same amount of milk as seronegative cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1160–1164)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the novel PCR diagnosis and outcome of intestinal Echinococcus multilocularis in a dog.

ANIMAL

A 13-month-old female intact dog with naturally occurring intestinal E multilocularis.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

The 13-month-old dog initially presented with a reduced appetite and weight loss and then developed hematochezia. The clinical history included a lack of endoparasite preventive care (fecal testing, deworming), exposure to coyotes, fox, sheep, and rodents and the dog had intermittently been fed a raw food diet. Physical examination revealed a thin dog, with a 2/9 body condition score, that was otherwise clinically unremarkable. A fecal sample was submitted for screening for gastrointestinal parasites as part of an infectious disease assessment. The fecal PCR test reported detection of E multilocularis. This result was sequenced as the European haplotype E3/E4. Centrifugal flotation (same sample) did not detect taeniid eggs.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The dog was treated with metronidazole, maropitant, and milbemycin oxime/praziquantel. Clinical improvement was noted within 48 hours. No DNA of E multilocularis was detected in a fecal sample collected approximately 10 days after treatment. The dog’s owner was advised to provide monthly deworming (praziquantel) for all dogs on the property and to contact their human health-care provider due to potential zoonotic exposure risk.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Increasing detection of E multilocularis is occurring in dogs in Canada and the US. Alveolar echinococcosis can cause severe disease in dogs and humans. Fecal PCR detection and surveillance may alert practitioners to canine intestinal cases and allow dogs to serve as sentinels for human exposure risk.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association