CASE DESCRIPTION 2 fillies, aged 3 months and 1 month, were examined because of urinary incontinence and urine scalding.
CLINICAL FINDINGS In horse 1, ultrasonography did not reveal any structural abnormalities of the kidneys; however, unilateral ureteral ectopia was diagnosed cystoscopically. In horse 2, CT revealed bilateral nephropathy, bilateral distended ureters (up to 3.6 cm in diameter), and bilateral ureteral ectopia. Cystoscopy revealed intramural ureteral ectopia with abnormally caudally positioned ureteral ostia in both horses.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Ureteral ostioplasty was performed under cystoscopic guidance. Laparoscopic scissors (horse 1) or a vessel-sealing device (horse 2) was introduced, and the tissue separating the intramural portion of the ureter from the urethra and bladder was cut longitudinally in a cranial direction toward the trigone. After surgery, both horses were continent and voided normal streams of urine for the duration of the follow-up periods of 20 and 9 months for horse 1 and horse 2, respectively.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cystoscopically guided ureteral ostioplasty provided an effective and minimally invasive surgical treatment option for correction of ureteral ectopia in 2 fillies.
To describe the use of non–contrast-enhanced CT to identify deep digital flexor (DDF) tendinopathy in horses with lameness attributed to pain in regions distal to the metatarsophalangeal or metacarpophalangeal joints.
Retrospective case series.
28 client-owned horses.
Medical records were searched to identify horses that underwent non–contrast-enhanced CT with or without high-field MRI as part of an evaluation for lameness localized to areas distal to the metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joint in ≥ 1 limb. Horses were included in the study if they had ≥ 1 DDF tendon lesion (DDF tendinopathy) identified. Signalment, lameness examination findings and response to perineural anesthesia, imaging modality, anesthetic agents and duration of anesthesia, and imaging findings were recorded. Data were summarized descriptively.
Bilateral imaging was performed for all horses, irrespective of unilateral or bilateral lameness. Nine of 28 horses underwent both CT and MRI, and all DDF tendon lesions identified by one modality were identified by the other. Of 48 limbs with DDF tendinopathy, 46 (96%) had core lesions and 35 (73%) had dorsal border irregularities. Median anesthesia time for CT and CT followed by MRI was 15 and 110 minutes, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that non–contrast-enhanced CT was useful for identifying DDF tendinopathy in horses with lameness localized to the phalangeal regions, and this was supported by consistency of findings in a subset of horses that underwent MRI. Further research is needed to confirm these results.