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  • Author or Editor: Andrew P. Notarianni x
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To describe the acquisition and pitfalls of a 3-view transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) protocol in anesthetized, dorsally recumbent dogs.


8 beagles, 1 to 2 years old, 7.4 to 11.2 kg.


Dogs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and placed in dorsal recumbency. A TEE probe was advanced, and 3 views were performed: midesophageal 4-chamber and long axis (ME 4C and ME LAX) and caudal esophageal short axis (CE SAX) at the level of the papillary muscles. Probe insertion depth, flexion, omniplane angle, and image acquisition time were recorded. Two observers assessed 24 video clips each and identified anatomical structures.


The ME 4C and ME LAX were obtained at 35 (30 to 40) cm insertion depth, omniplane at 0° and 103° (90 to 116), respectively. Views were obtained in ≤30 seconds once the TEE was in the cervical esophagus. Left-sided structures were identified in all cases, whereas right-sided structures were not always simultaneously obtained in the ME 4C, requiring further probe manipulation. All structures were identified on ME LAX. CE SAX was obtained at 40 (35 to 45) cm, omniplane at 0°, and in 15 (10 to 90) seconds. A true SAX view (circular left ventricle at the level of papillary muscles) could not be obtained in all dogs.


A 3-view TEE protocol using core views as those described in humans may be applicable to dogs under general anesthesia and in dorsal recumbency. The CE SAX view at the level of the papillary muscles appears more difficult to obtain with consistency than midesophageal views.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research