Objective—To determine features, outcome, and complications of surgical treatment of camelid tooth root abscesses.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—123 camelids with tooth root abscesses.
Procedures—Signalment, history, teeth involved, surgery performed, ancillary diagnostic tests, and short-term complications were recorded from each medical record. An owner questionnaire was used to obtain long-term (> 1 year) follow-up information.
Results—The most common surgical treatments included tooth extraction (n = 106) and apicoectomy (13). Owners provided follow-up information on 84 animals. Postoperative complications were reported in 42 of 84 animals. The most common complications included reinfection (n = 15), chronic draining tract (14), and osteomyelitis (14). Significantly more camelids that were in good or obese body condition at the time of surgery were alive at the time of follow-up, compared with those with thin body condition at the time of surgery. Camelids with 2 teeth extracted had significantly more complications than those with 1 tooth extracted. Thirty-four of 47 owners reported that they were completely satisfied with the outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Owners of camelids in poor body condition should be forewarned that such animals are at greater risk for complications following dental surgery. Clinicians should recognize that the number of teeth affected was not associated with a poorer outcome.
4 calves were evaluated because of lameness and an angular limb deformity of the metatarsophalangeal region.
3 calves (ages, 5 days, 10 days, and 1 month) had a congenital varus deformity of the metatarsophalangeal region characterized by medial subluxation of the first phalanx of digits 3 and 4 at the metatarsophalangeal joints. A 6-month-old heifer had a valgus deformity of the metatarsophalangeal region secondary to a malunion of a Salter-Harris type II fracture. The degree of deformity angulation ranged from 16° to 54° for the 4 patients.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A closing wedge ostectomy with transfixation pin–cast application was performed on the affected limb of all 4 patients. The ostectomy healed with only minor complications (disuse osteopenia distal to the transfixation pins [n = 4] and cast sores ) that were easily resolved with no long-term adverse effects. Duration of follow-up for the 4 patients ranged from 6 to 17 months, and the owners reported satisfactory ambulation with no (n = 2) or only mild (2) residual lameness in the affected limb.
Results suggested that a closing wedge ostectomy with transfixation pin–cast stabilization is an alternative for management of angular limb deformities of the metatarsophalangeal region in cattle. Such treatment improved the quality of life for all 4 patients. However, 2 of the 4 patients had congenital deformities confirmed to be heritable. There are ethical concerns associated with treating animals with heritable disorders, and exhibition and breeding of such animals should be avoided.
Objective—To compare the mechanical characteristics of polymerized caprolactam and monofilament nylon loops with those of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in cattle.
Sample—6 femorotibial joints harvested from 3 cows and suture constructs made from No. 8 polymerized caprolactam, 80-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line, and 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line.
Procedures—Joints were cleared of soft tissue structures except the CCL, connected to a load frame, and loaded to failure while measuring force and elongation. Synthetic constructs tested in a similar manner included single-stranded and 3-stranded No. 8 polymerized caprolactam, 3- and 6-stranded 80-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line, and 3- and 6-stranded 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line.
Results—The CCL ruptured at a mean ± SD force of 4,541 ± 1,417 N with an elongation of 2.0 ± 0.3 cm. The tensile strength of 3-stranded 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line was similar to that of the CCL, rupturing at loads of 5,310 ± 369 N (braided strands) and 6,260 ± 239 N (parallel strands). Elongation was greater for braided constructs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The 3-stranded cords of 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line most closely approximated the strength of the CCL. Marked increases in elongation occur when large-sized materials are constructed in braided configurations, and this elongation would likely not provide stability in CCL-deficient stifle joints. Additional studies are needed to determine whether any of these materials are suitable CCL replacements in cattle.
Objective—To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome in camelids treated for osseous sequestration.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—27 alpacas and 9 llamas with osseous sequestration.
Procedures—Medical records of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed to identify camelids evaluated because of osseous sequestration between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2010. Data on history, signalment, physical examination and medical imaging findings, treatment, and complications were collected.
Results—Records of 36 camelids were included, of which there were 22 sexually intact males, 11 females, and 2 castrated males with a median age of 7. 5 months, 3.9 months, and 8.5 years, respectively (age and sex were not available for 1 camelid). The most common clinical signs were lameness, swelling over the affected bone, and associated draining sinus. Sequestra were associated with trauma in 7 (19%) camelids. Camelids with sequestra not associated with trauma (n = 29 [81%]) were significantly younger than those with sequestra attributed to trauma. Thirty-four camelids underwent sequestrectomy, and all survived to hospital discharge (median duration of hospitalization, 6.5 days). Recurrence of a sequestrum occurred twice in 1 (3%) camelid. Long-term follow-up (≥ 12 months) information was available on 24 camelids, of which 20 (83%) recovered without long-term complications.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike in other livestock, trauma was not a primary cause of osseous sequestration in camelids. Sequestra should be considered in the differential diagnostic process in camelids with lameness, a draining sinus, or a firm swelling over a bony prominence. Sequestrectomy is a successful treatment option.
OBJECTIVE To describe concentration-over-time data for ampicillin and sulbactam in the digital and systemic circulations and synovial fluid (SYN) of cattle following a single injection of ampicillin-sulbactam as a regional IV perfusion (RIVP).
PROCEDURES The right hind limb of each cow was aseptically prepared. A tourniquet was applied around the midmetatarsal region, and 1.0 g of ampicillin with 0.5 g of sulbactam in a combined formulation was administered as an RIVP into the dorsal common digital vein (DCDV). Blood samples from the DCDV and jugular vein and SYN samples from the metatarsophalangeal joint of the prepared limb were collected immediately before and at predetermined times for 24 hours after RIVP. One blood sample was obtained from the abaxial proper plantar vein of the lateral digit of the prepared limb 0.25 hours after RIVP. Serum and SYN ampicillin and sulbactam concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS Mean ± SD maximum concentration of ampicillin in SYN and serum obtained from the abaxial proper plantar and jugular veins was 1,995 ± 1,011 μg/mL, 5,422 ± 1,953 μg/mL, and 2.5 ± 1.6 μg/mL, respectively. Corresponding serum and SYN concentrations of sulbactam were lower but followed the same pattern over time as those for ampicillin. Synovial fluid ampicillin concentration remained above 8 μg/mL for a mean time of 18.9 hours.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Potentially therapeutic concentrations of ampicillin were achieved in regional serum and SYN samples; SYN concentrations remained at potentially therapeutic values for > 12 hours following RIVP of 1.5 g of ampicillin-sulbactam in the hind limb of healthy cows.
To describe the pharmacokinetics of morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine associated with IV administration of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of a morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) combination to calves undergoing umbilical herniorrhaphy.
20 weaned Holstein calves with umbilical hernias.
Calves were randomly assigned to receive a CRI of an MLK solution (0.11 mL/kg/h; morphine, 4.8 μg/kg/h; lidocaine, 2.1 mg/kg/h; and ketamine, 0.42 mg/kg/h) for 24 hours (MLK group) or 2 doses of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) and a CRI of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.11 mL/kg/h) for 24 hours (control group). For all calves, the CRI was begun after anesthesia induction. Blood samples were obtained immediately before and at predetermined times for 120 hours after initiation of the assigned treatment. Noncompartmental analysis was used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters for the MLK group.
During the CRI, steady-state serum concentrations were achieved for lidocaine and ketamine, but not morphine. Mean terminal half-life was 4.1, 0.98, and 1.55 hours and area under the concentration-time curve was 41, 14,494, and 7,426 h•μg/mL for morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine, respectively. After the CRI, the mean serum drug concentration at steady state was 6.3, 616.7, and 328 ng/mL for morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
During the CRI of the MLK solution, steady-state serum concentrations were achieved for lidocaine and ketamine, but not morphine, likely owing to the fairly long half-life of morphine. Kinetic analyses of MLK infusions in cattle are necessary to establish optimal dosing protocols.
To assess the analgesic efficacy of an IV constant rate infusion (CRI) of a morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) combination in calves undergoing umbilical herniorrhaphy.
20 weaned Holstein calves with umbilical hernias.
Calves were randomly assigned to receive a CRI of an MLK solution (0.11 mL/kg/h; morphine, 4.8 μg/kg/h; lidocaine, 2.1 mg/kg/h; and ketamine, 0.42 mg/kg/h) for 24 hours (MLK group) or 2 doses of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) and a CRI of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.11 mL/kg/h) for 24 hours (control group). The assigned CRI was begun after anesthesia induction. A pain-scoring system and incisional algometry were used to assess pain, and blood samples were obtained to measure serum cortisol concentration at predetermined times for 120 hours after CRI initiation.
Mean pain scores did not differ significantly between the MLK and control groups at any time. Mean algometry score for the MLK group was significantly greater (calves were less responsive to pressure) than that for the control group at 4 hours after CRI initiation. Mean cortisol concentration decreased over time for both groups and was significantly greater for the MLK group than the control group at 1, 4, and 18 hours after CRI initiation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
A CRI of MLK provided adequate postoperative analgesia to calves that underwent umbilical herniorrhaphy. However, the technical support required for CRI administration limits its use to hospital settings. Kinetic analyses of MLK infusions in cattle are necessary to establish optimal dosing protocols and withdrawal intervals.
To investigate the chondroprotective effects of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), ampicillin-sulbactam (AmpS), or PRP combined with AmpS (PRP+AmpS) in an in vitro chondrocyte explant model of bovine Staphylococcus aureus–induced septic arthritis.
Autologous PRP and cartilage explants obtained from 6 healthy, adult, nonlactating Jersey-crossbred cows.
Autologous PRP was prepared prior to euthanasia using an optimized double centrifugation protocol. Cartilage explants collected from grossly normal stifle joints were incubated in synovial fluid (SF) alone, S aureus–inoculated SF (SA), or SA supplemented with PRP (25% culture medium volume), AmpS (2 mg/mL), or both PRP (25% culture medium volume) and AmpS (2 mg/mL; PRP+AmpS) for 24 hours. The metabolic activity, percentage of dead cells, and glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage explants were measured with a resazurin-based assay, live-dead cell staining, and dimethylmethylene blue assay, respectively. Treatment effects were assessed relative to the findings for cartilage explants incubated in SF alone.
Application of PRP, AmpS, and PRP+AmpS treatments significantly reduced S aureus–induced chondrocyte death (ie, increased metabolic activity and cell viability staining) in cartilage explants, compared with untreated controls. There were no significant differences in chondrocyte death among explants treated with PRP, AmpS, or PRP+AmpS.
In this in vitro explant model of S aureus–induced septic arthritis, PRP, AmpS, and PRP+AmpS treatments mitigated chondrocyte death. Additional work to confirm the efficacy of PRP with bacteria commonly associated with clinical septic arthritis in cattle as well as in vivo evaluation is warranted.
Objective—To determine elution characteristics of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 from a polycaprolactone coating applied to orthopedic implants and determine effects of this coating on osseointegration.
Procedures—An in vitro study was conducted to determine BMP-2 elution from polycaprolactone-coated implants. An in vivo study was conducted to determine the effects on osseointegration when the polycaprolactone with BMP-2 coating was applied to bone screws. Osseointegration was assessed via radiography, measurement of peak removal torque and bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis. Physiologic response was assessed by measuring serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and uptake of bone markers.
Results—Mean ± SD elution on day 1 of the in vitro study was 263 ± 152 pg/d, which then maintained a plateau at 59.8 ± 29.1 pg/d. Mean peak removal torque for screws coated with polycalprolactone and BMP-2 (0.91 ± 0.65 dN·m) and screws coated with polycaprolactone alone (0.97 ± 1.30 dN·m) did not differ significantly from that for the control screws (2.34 ± 1.62 dN·m). Mean bone mineral densities were 0.535 ± 0.060 g/cm2, 0.596 ± 0.093 g/cm2, and 0.524 ± 0.142 g/cm2 for the polycaprolactone–BMP-2–coated, polycaprolactone-coated, and control screws, respectively, and did not differ significantly among groups. Histologically, bone was in closer apposition to the implant with the control screws than with either of the coated screws.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BMP-2 within the polycaprolactone coating did not stimulate osteogenesis. The polycaprolactone coating appeared to cause a barrier effect that prevented formation of new bone. A longer period or use of another carrier polymer may result in increased osseointegration.
Objective—To evaluate indications for and factors relating to outcome after rumenotomy or rumenostomy in cattle.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—95 cattle that underwent rumenotomy or rumenostomy.
Procedures—Medical records for 95 cattle that underwent either rumenostomy or rumenotomy at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals in 1999 through 2011 were analyzed. Reasons for the procedures were noted. Long-term outcome was determined during telephone interviews with owners.
Results—42 (44%) bovids underwent rumenostomy and 53 (56%) bovids underwent rumenotomy. Among the 42 animals undergoing rumenostomy, 18 (43%) had rumen cannulas placed during elective procedures. Other indications for rumenostomy included ruminal tympany (bloat [n = 20]), esophageal obstruction (choke ), grain overload (1), and provision of access for administration of enteral nutrition (2). Indications for rumenotomy included traumatic reticuloperitonitis (n = 31), bloat (9), foreign body (6), choke (5), and other (2). Long-term follow-up data were available for 31 of 42 (74%) bovids that underwent rumenostomy. Of those 31 animals, 17 (55%) were still in the herd, 4 (13%) had been culled, and 10 (32%) had died or were euthanized. Long-term follow-up data were available for 38 of 53 (72%) bovids that underwent rumenotomy. Of those 38 animals, 13 (34%) were still in the herd, 14 (37%) had been culled, and 11 (29%) had died or been euthanized.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that rumenotomy and rumenostomy can be effective in treating or relieving complications secondary to forestomach disorders in cattle. Bovids undergoing rumen surgery had a favorable prognosis for survival and a fair prognosis for potential return to production.