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Abstract

Objective

To describe the spectrum of nonspecific airway reactivity in a group of clinically normal foals.

Animals

12 clinically normal mixed-breed foals, 48 to 92 days old, without history of clinical lung disease.

Procedure

Nonspecific airway reactivity was determined by measuring the extent of changes in dynamic compliance during nebulization of incrementally increasing concentrations of histamine aerosol. Degree of airway reactivity was expressed as the dose of histamine that evoked a decrease in dynamic compliance (Cdyn) to 65% of the after saline nebulization value (PC65Cdyn) or increase in pulmonary resistance (RL) to 135% of baseline (PC135RL).

Results

In all foals, it was possible to induce a decrease in Cdyn in dose-dependent manner to ≤ 65% of baseline. Response of foals in terms of RL was more erratic, and, in 1 foal, RL decreased after histamine exposure. Mean ± SD PC65Cdyn was 5.43 ± 1.74 (range, 0.77 to 19.56) mg/ml, and mean PC135RL was 3.34 ± 1.52 (range, −0.749 to 17.35) mg/ml. Body weight was not correlated to baseline Cdyn, RL, PC65Cdyn, or PC135RL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Clinically normal foals had a wide range of airway reactivity, which may contribute to variation in clinical responses of foals to otherwise similar stimuli, such as infection, inflammation, and challenge exposure with environmental irritants. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:965-968)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the difference in histologic artifacts and morphologic diagnosis among 3 laparoscopic cup biopsy forceps techniques and wedge hepatic samples.

ANIMALS

Cadavers of 20 client-owned dogs following euthanasia for unrelated reasons between January 3 and July 29, 2021.

PROCEDURES

Four biopsy techniques were performed from the margin of 3 liver lobes/dog. Laparoscopic techniques used 5-mm cup biopsy forceps to obtain biopsy samples by pulling the forceps forcefully caudally to free a sample (the PULL technique), rotating the forceps 360° in 1 direction until freed (the TWST technique), or pulling the forceps through a 5-mm cannula to remove the sample (the CAN technique); wedge biopsy samples served as the control (CON). Data collected included sample weight, histologic features, diagnosis, and artifact characterization. Gwet AC1 or intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to detect agreement among techniques.

RESULTS

Sample weights for CON and TWST were significantly larger (P < .001 and P = .035, respectively) than for PULL and CAN. There was excellent agreement among all techniques for most diagnostic features (Gwet AC1, 0.93 to 1). The TWST technique resulted in the best overall artifact profile for laparoscopic techniques, with 90% of samples (54/60) having crisp edges and 65% of samples (39/60) having no or mild tearing. The agreement was moderate to good (ICC, 0.73 for edges and 0.76 for tearing) among all cup biopsy forceps techniques.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The TWST technique resulted in the largest sample and had the fewest artifacts, supporting its continued use during laparoscopic procedures.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine accuracy of the use of triaxial accelerometry for measuring daily activity as a predictor of maintenance energy requirement (MER) in healthy adult Labrador Retrievers.

Animals—10 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers.

Procedures—Dogs wore an accelerometer for two 2-week periods, with data on daily activity successfully collected for 24 to 26 days. These data, along with body weight, were used as independent variables in a multiple linear regression model to predict the dependent variable of daily MER. The predictive accuracy of the model was compared with that of a model that excluded activity. Dietary energy intake at a stated amount of body weight stability was used as an equivalent measure of MER in these analyses.

Results—The multiple linear regression model that included body weight and daily activity as independent variables could be used to predict observed MER with a mean absolute error of 63.5 kcal and an SE of estimation of 94.3 kcal. Removing activity from the model reduced the predictive accuracy to a mean absolute error of 129.8 kcal and an SE of estimation of 165.4 kcal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of triaxial accelerometers to provide an independent variable of daily activity yielded a marked improvement in predictive accuracy of the regression model, compared with that for a model that used only body weight. Improved accuracy in estimations of MER could be made for each dog if an accelerometer was used to record its daily activity.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate disparities in hepatic copper concentrations determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and digital image analysis of rhodanine-stained sections.

ANIMALS

516 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of dogs for which hepatic biopsy specimens had been submitted between January 1999 and December 2019 for evaluation of copper content were reviewed. Paired hepatic copper concentrations obtained with digital image analysis and AAS or ICP-MS were compared, and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated to test for correlations between qualitative copper accumulation scores and hepatic copper concentrations. For dogs for which ≥ 4 rhodanine-stained hepatic sections were available, intraindividual variation in copper distribution across hepatic sections was evaluated.

RESULTS

Median hepatic copper concentrations obtained with digital image analysis exceeded concentrations obtained with AAS or ICP-MS. Concentrations were also higher in older dogs (≥ 9 years vs < 9 years), dogs of breeds with a typical body weight ≥ 20 kg (44 lb), and dogs with necroinflammatory changes or uneven copper distribution. Qualitative copper accumulation scores were significantly associated with hepatic copper concentrations; however, the correlation between qualitative score and concentration obtained with digital image analysis (rs = 0.94) was higher than the correlation between qualitative score and concentration obtained with AAS (rs = 0.75) or ICP-MS (rs = 0.57). The coefficient of variation for hepatic copper concentrations obtained with digital image analysis was significantly higher for dogs with higher hepatic copper concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that spectroscopic-spectrometric analysis of hepatic biopsy specimens commonly underestimated the concentration obtained by digital image analysis of rhodanine-stained sections.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of preoperatively administered pentastarch (10% concentration in isotonic saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) and hypertonic saline (7.2% NaCl) solutions on PCV and circulating total protein (TP) concentration in horses with colic undergoing emergency exploratory laparotomy and to assess survival rates of horses that received each treatment.

Design—Prospective, randomized study.

Animals—100 horses with signs of abdominal pain and PCV ≥ 0.46 L/L.

Procedures—Horses received a 4 mL/kg (1.8 mL/lb) dose of pentastarch solution (n = 50) or hypertonic saline solution (50) over a 10- to 20-minute period before anesthetic induction. Blood samples were collected at the time of evaluation and ≤ 5 minutes after fluid resuscitation; changes in PCV and TP concentration were compared. Survival was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses.

Results—Age, weight, sex, PCV, and heart rate on initial examination were similar between treatment groups. Hypertonic saline solution treatment resulted in a significantly greater reduction in PCV (median change, −0.14 L/L) than did pentastarch treatment (median change, −0.07 L/L). Reduction in TP concentration was also significantly greater after hypertonic saline solution treatment (median change, −16 g/L) than after pentastarch treatment (median change, −2 g/L). Long-term survival was not significantly different between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite a greater reduction in preanesthetic hemoconcentration following administration of hypertonic saline solution (4 mL/kg infusion, once), no difference in overall long-term survival was found between horses that received this treatment and those that received an equal volume of pentastarch solution. Findings suggested that, in a clinical setting, either of these fluids would be appropriate for preoperative fluid resuscitation in horses with colic.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine period prevalences of postmortem diagnoses for spinal cord or vertebral column lesions as underlying causes of ataxia (spinal ataxia) in horses.

ANIMALS

2,861 client-owned horses (316 with ataxia [ataxic group] and 2,545 without ataxia [control group]).

PROCEDURES

The medical records database of the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital was searched to identify horses necropsied between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2017. Results were compared between the ataxic and control groups and between various groups of horses in the ataxic group. Period prevalences were determined for the most common causes of ataxia.

RESULTS

2,861 horses underwent full necropsy, and the period prevalences for the most common definitive diagnoses for ataxia were 2.7% (77/2,861) for cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy (CVCM), 1.3% (38/2,861) for equine neuroaxonal dystrophy or equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (eNAD-EDM), and 0.9% (25/2,861) for trauma; the period prevalence of ataxia of unknown origin was 2.0% (56/2,861). Horses in the ataxic group (vs the control group) were more likely to have been warmblood horses (OR, 2.70) and less likely to have been Arabian horses (OR, 0.53). In the ataxic group, horses < 5 (vs ≥ 5) years of age had greater odds of CVCM (OR, 2.82) or eNAD-EDM (OR, 6.17) versus trauma or ataxia of unknown origin. Horses in the ataxic group with CVCM were more likely Thoroughbreds (OR, 2.54), whereas horses with eNAD-EDM were more likely American Quarter Horses (OR, 2.95) and less likely Thoroughbreds (OR, 0.11).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that breed distributions differed for horses with CVCM versus eNAD-EDM; therefore, breed should be considered in the clinical evaluation of spinal ataxia in horses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association