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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare reactivities to intradermal injection of extracts of Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, house dust mite mix, and house dust in dogs suspected to have atopic dermatitis.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—115 dogs.

Procedures—Records of all dogs suspected to have atopic dermatitis that underwent intradermal testing between October 1996 and July 1998 were reviewed. Reactivities to intradermal injection of crude mixed house dust mite (1:25,000 wt/vol) and crude house dust (25 PNU/ml) extracts were compared with reactivities to intradermal injection of individual extracts of D farinae and D pteronyssinus (1:50,000 wt/vol).

Results—Ninety dogs were confirmed to have atopic dermatitis including 61 of the 69 dogs with positive reactions to either or both of the individual house dust mite extracts. Intradermal testing with the mixed house dust mite extract had sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 96%, and accuracy of 83%. Intradermal testing with the house dust extract had sensitivity of 30%, specificity of 93%, and accuracy of 56%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that use of crude mixed house dust mite and crude house dust extracts for intradermal testing in dogs is not as accurate a method of determining house dust mite hypersensitivity as is the use of individual D farinae and D pteronyssinus extracts mainly because of the high percentage of false-negative results. Extracts of individual house dust mites are recommended for intradermal testing of dogs suspected to have atopic dermatitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:536–540)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To use an amplified ELISA technique to document the presence and quantify the concentration of the house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, in skin and coat dust samples collected from dogs.

Animals—29 pet dogs of various breeds.

Procedure—Dogs were weighed, and body surface area in square meters was determined. Skin and coat dust samples were obtained by vacuuming dogs. Collected dust was analyzed by use of standard and amplified ELISA techniques.

Results—By use of the standard ELISA technique, Der f 1 was detected in skin and coat dust samples from 6 of 29 (21%) dogs. Mean concentration of Der f 1 in the 6 samples with positive assay results was 16.16 ng/mL (range, 5.61 to 31.24 ng/mL). Samples with negative assay results were retested for dust mite allergen by use of an amplified ELISA technique; an additional 14 dogs had positive assay results. Mean concentration of allergen was 0.36 ng/mL (range, 0.19 to 2.20 ng/mL). Combining both techniques, 20 of 29 (69%) dogs had positive assay results for Der f 1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of our study indicate that house dust mite allergens are present on the skin and in the coat of dogs, and this source of allergen may act as a reservoir for allergen exposure in hypersensitive dogs. Use of an amplified ELISA technique to determine environmental concentrations of house dust mite allergens in homes and on dogs will help to identify the relationship between immunologic findings and environmental exposures in dogs with atopic dermatitis. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:162–165)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of late-phase reactions to intradermal testing with Dermatophagoides farinae in healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis and an immediate reaction to D farinae.

Animals—6 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis and immediate reactions to D farinae.

Procedure—Intradermal tests were performed with D farinae at 1:1,000 wt/vol and 1:50,000 wt/vol concentrations, and skin reactivity was evaluated after 0.25, 6, and 24 hours. Serum D farinae-specific IgE antibodies were assayed. Extent of lesions (atopy index) and pruritus (visual analogue scale) were evaluated in dogs with atopic dermatitis.

Results—Late-phase reactions were observed in healthy dogs at 6 hours (n = 2 dogs) and 24 hours (1) with the 1:1,000 wt/vol concentration, and at 6 hours (1) and 24 hours (1) with the 1:50,000 wt/vol concentration of allergen. Late-phase reactions in healthy dogs were only observed in dogs with an immediate reaction to D farinae. Late-phase reactions were observed in 11 of 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis at 6 and 24 hours with the 1:1,000 wt/vol concentration and in 10 of 20 at 6 and 24 hours with the 1:50,000 wt/vol concentration of allergen. There was no difference in mean atopy index, mean visual analogue scale of pruritus, or mean serum D farinae-specific IgE concentration of dogs with a late-phase reaction, compared to dogs without a late-phase reaction.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Late-phase reactions may be observed after an immediate reaction to intradermal skin testing in healthy and allergic dogs but are more commonly observed in dogs with atopic dermatitis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:69–73)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare clinical efficacy of pulse administration with itraconazole versus once daily administration for the treatment of cutaneous and otic M pachydermatis infection in dogs.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—20 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were treated with itraconazole orally (n = 10/group), using a pulse administration regimen (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 2 consecutive days per week for 3 weeks) or once daily administration (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 21 days). No other treatment was permitted. On days 0 and 21, clinical severity of cutaneous and otic disease was assessed, and samples were collected for cytologic examination and yeast culture. Cytology (sum of the mean number of yeast organisms per oil immersion field for affected sites) and culture (mean of the score for extent of yeast growth for samples from affected sites) scores were calculated.

Results—For dogs in both treatment groups, clinical severity of cutaneous and otic disease was significantly decreased by day 21, but decrease in severity was not significantly different between groups. Similarly, skin cytology, skin culture, and ear culture scores were significantly decreased on day 21, compared with day 0, for both groups, but decreases were not significantly different between groups except that dogs in the pulse administration group had a significantly greater decrease in ear culture scores than did dogs in the daily administration group. However, when cytology scores only for ear samples were analyzed, day 21 score was not significantly decreased, compared with day 0 score, for either group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that both pulse administration and once daily administration of itraconazole were efficacious in the treatment of M pachydermatis cutaneous infection in dogs. However, adjunctive treatment may be needed in dogs with M pachydermatis otitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1807–1812)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare results of intradermal tests (IDT) for environmental allergens at 30 minutes and 4, 6, and 24 hours after injection in horses without atopy and horses with atopic dermatitis (AD) or recurrent urticaria (RU).

Animals—22 horses without atopy, 10 horses with RU, and 7 horses with AD.

Procedure—In all horses, medical history was obtained, and results of physical examination, hematologic examination, serum biochemical analyses, examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and IDT with 73 allergens were examined.

Results—Horses with AD or RU had a significantly greater mean number of positive reactions for IDT, compared with horses without atopy. Horses with AD had a significantly greater number of positive reactions than horses without atopy in every allergen group at all time periods, except for molds at 4 and 24 hours. Horses with RU had a significantly greater number of positive reactions than horses without atopy in every allergen group, except for molds at 30 minutes and 4 and 6 hours, trees at 4 and 6 hours, and grasses at 4 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A significantly greater number of positive reactions for IDT in horses with AD or RU, compared with horses without atopy, provides evidence of type-I IgE-mediated hypersensitivity for these diseases. Evaluation of results of IDT performed in horses with AD or RU is useful in determining specific allergens for the formulation of immunotherapy along with providing identification of allergens that could be useful when creating avoidance strategies. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1051–1059)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine frequency of antimicrobial drug (AMD) use in dogs within 12 months prior to admission to a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Owner survey and medical records review.

Animals—435 dogs admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital.

Procedures—Demographic characteristics and information regarding AMD use in dogs were obtained from medical records and results of surveys completed by owners of dogs.

Results—242 (55.6%) dogs received at least 1 AMD within 12 months prior to hospital admission; 125 (51.7%) of these dogs had a disease of the integument at the time of admission. β-Lactam AMDs were used more frequently than AMDs of any other class (176/242 [72.7%] dogs). Three hundred sixty-eight dogs had a medical problem at the time of hospital admission; 225 (61.1%) of these dogs had received at least 1 AMD within 12 months prior to hospital admission. Dogs referred by a veterinarian to the hospital were 2.39 times as likely to have received at least 1 AMD within 30 days prior to hospital admission as were dogs admitted without a referral.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated AMDs were frequently administered to dogs prior to admission to the teaching hospital. Use of AMDs in animals could be a risk factor for coselection and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens, and colonization or infection of dogs with such pathogens could have a negative impact on the health of other animals and humans.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare responses to a variety of intradermally injected allergens among healthy horses and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), recurrent urticaria (RU), and atopic dermatitis-insect hypersensitivity (allergic dermatitis [AD]).

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—86 horses.

Procedure—Results of intradermal testing for horses with COPD, RU, or AD were compared with results for healthy horses.

Results—Compared with healthy horses, horses with COPD, RU, and AD were significantly more likely to have positive (≥ 3+) reactions to intradermal allergens (molds, weeds, trees, grasses-crops, and insects) 30 minutes (immediate reaction), 4 hours (late-phase reactions), and 24 hours (delayed-phase reactions) after exposure. In addition, diseased horses reacted to a significantly higher number of allergens in each allergen group than did healthy horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reactions to individual allergens should not be used to determine that horses have hypersensitivity. Overall patterns of reactivity to intradermal allergens may be helpful in management when used in conjunction with a compatible history and evidence of potential exposure to allergens in horses with conditions associated with hypersensitivity to environmental allergens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;62:1115–1121)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To quantitate the density of Dermatophagoides farinae and D pteronyssinus and concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergens (Der f 1, Der p 1, and Group 2 allergens) in the indoor microenvironment of dogs.

Sample Population—50 homes in Columbus, Ohio.

Procedure—In each home, samples of dust were collected from 3 locations in which dogs spent most time. Whenever possible, the species of mites collected was identified. Mite density (mites/g of dust) was assessed, and allergen concentrations were assayed by standardized ELISAs. Relative humidity and temperature in each home were monitored during a 5-day period. Characteristics of homes and sample sources were evaluated.

Results—Dust samples from all 50 homes contained ≥ 1 HDM allergen; Der f 1 and Der p 1 were detected in 100 and 74% of homes, respectively. Fifteen homes had HDMs; compared with D pteronyssinus, D farinae was found more commonly (14/15 homes) and at a higher density. Basements, homes without central air-conditioning, and dog beds that were ≥ 1 year old had high HDM allergen concentrations. Homes with ≥ 2 µg of Der f 1 or Group 2 allergens/g of dust or ≥ 100 mites/g of dust were significantly more likely to have a maximum relative humidity ≥ 75%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated the presence of HDMs and HDM allergens in the specific microenvironment of dogs in homes. Factors associated with high levels of exposure were identified, which may be associated with increased risk for sensitization and development of atopic diseases. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1580–1588)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantitate the density of Dermatophagoides farinae and D pteronyssinus and concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergens (Der f 1, Der p 1, and Group 2 allergens) in the indoor microenvironment of dogs.

Sample Population—50 homes in Columbus, Ohio.

Procedures—In each home, samples of dust were collected from 3 locations in which dogs spent most time. Whenever possible, the species of mites collected was identified. Mite density (mites/g of dust) was assessed, and allergen concentrations were assayed by standardized ELISAs. Relative humidity and temperature in each home were monitored during a 5-day period. Characteristics of homes and sample sources were evaluated.

Results—Dust samples from all 50 homes contained ≥ 1 HDM allergen; Der f 1 and Der p 1 were detected in 100 and 74% of homes, respectively. Fifteen homes had HDMs; compared with D pteronyssinus, D farinae was found more commonly (14/15 homes) and at a higher density. Basements, homes without central airconditioning, and dog beds that were ≥ 1 year old had high HDM allergen concentrations. Homes with ≥ 2 µg of Der f 1 or Group 2 allergens/g of dust or ≥ 100 mites/g of dust were significantly more likely to have a maximum relative humidity ≥ 75%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate the presence of HDMs and HDM allergens in the specific microenvironment of dogs in homes. Factors associated with high levels of exposure were identified, which may be associated with increased risk for sensitization and development of atopic diseases. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1301–1309)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research