Objective—To determine whether the presence of anemia (Hct ≤ 37%) at the time of diagnosis of lymphoma is a negative prognostic indicator for response to treatment and survival time in dogs that are undergoing chemotherapy.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—96 dogs with lymphoma that were receiving chemotherapy.
Procedures—Information regarding signalment, initial hematologic data, chemotherapy protocol, clinical response, and date of death was retrospectively collected from medical records of dogs with lymphoma. Univariate, multivariate, and survival analyses were performed to determine the effect of anemia on initial response to chemotherapy and on survival time.
Results—Overall, dogs without anemia (n = 56) were 4 times as likely as dogs with anemia (40) to have a complete response following chemotherapy. Anemic dogs had a significantly shorter median survival time (139 days), compared with survival time of nonanemic dogs (315 days). Subset analysis of dogs with multicentric lymphoma (matched for clinical stage and chemotherapy protocol) revealed that the dogs with anemia (n = 24) had a significantly shorter median survival time (101 days), compared with survival time of dogs without anemia (24; 284 days). Other variables were not associated with survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings suggested that anemia is a negative prognostic factor for dogs with lymphoma that are undergoing chemotherapy. Further investigation will be necessary to determine the impact of resolution of anemia on clinical outcome in dogs with lymphoma.
Objective—To determine the antitumor effects and toxicoses of metronomic oral administration of a low dose of chlorambucil in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
Design—Prospective clinical trial.
Animals—31 client-owned dogs with TCC for which prior treatments had failed or owners had declined other treatments.
Procedures—Chlorambucil (4 mg/m2, PO, q 24 h) was administered to dogs. Before and at scheduled times during treatment, evaluations of dogs included physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, thoracic and abdominal imaging including cystosonography for measurement of TCCs, and grading of toxicoses.
Results—29 of 31 dogs had failed prior TCC treatment. Of the 30 dogs with available data, 1 (3%) had partial remission (≥ 50% reduction in tumor volume), 20 (67%) had stable disease (< 50% change in tumor volume), and 9 (30%) had progressive disease (≥ 50% increase in tumor volume or development of additional tumors); 1 dog was lost to follow-up. The median progression-free interval (time from the start of chlorambucil treatment to the day progressive disease was detected) for the dogs was 119 days (range, 7 to 728 days). The median survival time of dogs from the time of the start of chlorambucil treatment was 221 days (range, 7 to 747 days). Few toxicoses were detected; chlorambucil administration was discontinued because of toxicoses in only 1 dog.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Metronomic administration of chlorambucil was well tolerated, and 70% of dogs had partial remission or stable disease. Metronomic administration of chlorambucil may be a treatment option for dogs with TCC.