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Abstract

Objective—To determine features, outcome, and complications of surgical treatment of camelid tooth root abscesses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—123 camelids with tooth root abscesses.

Procedures—Signalment, history, teeth involved, surgery performed, ancillary diagnostic tests, and short-term complications were recorded from each medical record. An owner questionnaire was used to obtain long-term (> 1 year) follow-up information.

Results—The most common surgical treatments included tooth extraction (n = 106) and apicoectomy (13). Owners provided follow-up information on 84 animals. Postoperative complications were reported in 42 of 84 animals. The most common complications included reinfection (n = 15), chronic draining tract (14), and osteomyelitis (14). Significantly more camelids that were in good or obese body condition at the time of surgery were alive at the time of follow-up, compared with those with thin body condition at the time of surgery. Camelids with 2 teeth extracted had significantly more complications than those with 1 tooth extracted. Thirty-four of 47 owners reported that they were completely satisfied with the outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Owners of camelids in poor body condition should be forewarned that such animals are at greater risk for complications following dental surgery. Clinicians should recognize that the number of teeth affected was not associated with a poorer outcome.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine accuracy of the use of triaxial accelerometry for measuring daily activity as a predictor of maintenance energy requirement (MER) in healthy adult Labrador Retrievers.

Animals—10 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers.

Procedures—Dogs wore an accelerometer for two 2-week periods, with data on daily activity successfully collected for 24 to 26 days. These data, along with body weight, were used as independent variables in a multiple linear regression model to predict the dependent variable of daily MER. The predictive accuracy of the model was compared with that of a model that excluded activity. Dietary energy intake at a stated amount of body weight stability was used as an equivalent measure of MER in these analyses.

Results—The multiple linear regression model that included body weight and daily activity as independent variables could be used to predict observed MER with a mean absolute error of 63.5 kcal and an SE of estimation of 94.3 kcal. Removing activity from the model reduced the predictive accuracy to a mean absolute error of 129.8 kcal and an SE of estimation of 165.4 kcal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of triaxial accelerometers to provide an independent variable of daily activity yielded a marked improvement in predictive accuracy of the regression model, compared with that for a model that used only body weight. Improved accuracy in estimations of MER could be made for each dog if an accelerometer was used to record its daily activity.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine density of corneal endothelial cells, corneal thickness, and corneal diameters in normal eyes of llamas and alpacas.

Animals—36 llamas and 20 alpacas.

Procedure—Both eyes were examined in each camelid. Noncontact specular microscopy was used to determine density of corneal endothelial cells. Corneal thickness was measured, using ultrasonographic pachymetry. Vertical and horizontal corneal diameters were measured, using Jameson calipers.

Results—Values did not differ significantly between the right and left eyes from the same camelid. There was no significant effect of sex on density of corneal endothelial cells or corneal thickness in either species. Mean density of endothelial cells was 2,669 cells/mm2 in llamas and 2,275 cells/mm2 in alpacas. Density of endothelial cells decreased with age in llamas. Polymegathism was observed frequently in both species. Mean corneal thickness was 608 µm for llamas and 595 µm for alpacas. Corneal thickness and density of endothelial cells were negatively correlated in llamas. Older (> 36 months old) llamas had significantly larger horizontal and vertical corneal diameters than younger llamas, and older alpacas had a significantly larger vertical corneal diameter than younger alpacas.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Density of corneal endothelial cells is only slightly lower in camelids than other domestic species. Density of endothelial cells decreases with age in llamas. Age or sex does not significantly affect corneal thickness in normal eyes of llamas and alpacas. Specular microscopy is useful for determining density of corneal endothelial cells in normal eyes of camelids. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:326–329)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of the duration of cold Ischemia on the renin-angiotensin system during renal transplantation In cats and to define the potential Influence of vasoactive factors in renal tissue following cold ischemic storage versus warm ischemic storage

Animals—10 purpose-bred 6-month-old sexually Intact female cats

Procedures—10 cats underwent renal autotransplantation after 30 minutes (n = 5) or 3 hours (5) of simple, ex vivo cold storage of renal autographs. Following autograft reperfusion, direct hemodynamic variables were measured with a telemetric Implant and samples were collected for plasma renin concentration. Activation of vascular-related genes (renin, endothelin, and angiotensin converting enzyme) relative to 2-hour simple cold or warm ischemia was also evaluated.

Results—No significant difference between groups was detected In any of the hemodynamic variables or postreperfusion plasma renin concentrations measured in this study relative to the duration of cold ischemic storage. There was also no difference between warm- and cold-stored kidneys in the expression of vascular-related genes

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prolonged renal Ischemia for clinically relevant durations does not appear to predispose clinically normal cats to altered hemodynamics or high plasma renin concentrations following graft reperfusion. Activation of vasoactive genes does not appear to be Influenced by type of Ischemia over 2 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1220-1227)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the mechanical characteristics of polymerized caprolactam and monofilament nylon loops with those of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in cattle.

Sample—6 femorotibial joints harvested from 3 cows and suture constructs made from No. 8 polymerized caprolactam, 80-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line, and 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line.

Procedures—Joints were cleared of soft tissue structures except the CCL, connected to a load frame, and loaded to failure while measuring force and elongation. Synthetic constructs tested in a similar manner included single-stranded and 3-stranded No. 8 polymerized caprolactam, 3- and 6-stranded 80-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line, and 3- and 6-stranded 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line.

Results—The CCL ruptured at a mean ± SD force of 4,541 ± 1,417 N with an elongation of 2.0 ± 0.3 cm. The tensile strength of 3-stranded 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line was similar to that of the CCL, rupturing at loads of 5,310 ± 369 N (braided strands) and 6,260 ± 239 N (parallel strands). Elongation was greater for braided constructs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The 3-stranded cords of 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line most closely approximated the strength of the CCL. Marked increases in elongation occur when large-sized materials are constructed in braided configurations, and this elongation would likely not provide stability in CCL-deficient stifle joints. Additional studies are needed to determine whether any of these materials are suitable CCL replacements in cattle.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-articular administration of ethyl alcohol for arthrodesis of tarsometatarsal joints in horses.

Animals—8 healthy female horses without lameness or radiographic evidence of tarsal joint osteoarthritis.

Procedure—In each horse, 1 tarsometatarsal joint was treated with 4 mL of 70% ethyl alcohol and the opposite joint was treated with 4 mL of 95% ethyl alcohol. Lameness examinations were performed daily for 2 weeks, followed by monthly evaluations for the duration of the 12-month study. Radiographic evaluations of both tarsi were performed 1 month after injection and every 3 months thereafter. Gross and histologic examinations of the tarsi were undertaken at completion of the study.

Results—Horses had minimal to no lameness associated with the treatments. Radiography revealed that 8 of 16 joints were fused by 4 months after treatment, with significantly more joints fused in the 70% ethyl alcohol group. Fifteen of 16 joints were considered fused at postmortem examination at 12 months. Gross and histologic examinations revealed foci of dense mature osteonal bone spanning the joint spaces. Bony fusion appeared to be concentrated on the dorsolateral, centrolateral, and plantarolateral aspects of the joints. Significant differences were not detected between treatment groups for lameness or pathologic findings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of ethyl alcohol into the tarsometatarsal joint of healthy horses appeared to facilitate arthrodesis of the joint in a pain-free manner. Results warrant further investigation into the potential use of ethyl alcohol in horses clinically affected with osteoarthritis of the tarsometatarsal and distal intertarsal joints.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine density of corneal endothelial cells and corneal thickness in eyes of euthanatized horses.

Sample Population—52 normal eyes from 26 horses.

Procedure—Eyes were enucleated after horses were euthanatized. Eyes were examined to determine that they did not have visible ocular defects. Noncontact specular microscopy was used to determine density of corneal endothelial cells. Corneal thickness was measured, using ultrasonic pachymetry or specular microscopy.

Results—Mean density of corneal endothelial cells was 3,155 cells/mm2. Cell density decreased with age, but sex did not affect cell density. Values did not differ significantly between right and left eyes from the same horse. Cell density of the ventral quadrant was significantly less than cell density of the medial and temporal quadrants. Mean corneal thickness was 893 µm. Sex or age did not affect corneal thickness. Dorsal and ventral quadrants were significantly thicker than the medial and temporal quadrants and central portion of the cornea. We did not detect a correlation between corneal thickness and density of endothelial cells in normal eyes of horses.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Density of corneal endothelial cells decreases with age, but corneal thickness is not affected by age or sex in normal eyes of horses. The technique described here may be useful for determining density of endothelial cells in the cornea of enucleated eyes. This is clinically relevant for analyzing corneal donor tissue prior to harvest and use for corneal transplantation. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:(479–482)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To determine whether quantitative analysis of sonographic brightness could be used to detect healing of an induced injury of the superficial digital flexor tendon in horses and whether rate of healing was influenced by equine recombinant growth hormone.

Animals—8 clinically normal Standardbreds.

Procedures—A localized injury was created in the left and right superficial digital flexor tendons of each horse by injection of 2,000 units of collagenase. After injury, 4 horses received equine recombinant growth hormone, a possible promoter of tendon healing. Sonographic images (7.5 MHz) of the flexor tendons and ligaments of the metacarpal region were recorded on videotape prior to injury and weekly for 7 weeks after injury. Images were digitized, and sonographic brightness of tendons and ligaments was calculated.

Results—Collagenase-induced injury was sonographically similar to naturally occurring injury. After injury, sonographic brightness of the tendon decreased; after 3 weeks, brightness progressively increased, although by 7 weeks brightness had not returned to preinjury value. Equine recombinant growth hormone had no significant effect on the rate of tendon healing, as evaluated sonographically or at necropsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—As healing developed, alterations in sonographic brightness of injured tendons coincided with real changes in tendon structure. Quantitative sonographic brightness could be used to accurately monitor healing of equine tendon and ligament injuries and investigate the efficacy of various treatment regimens. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1320–1327)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research