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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate disparities in hepatic copper concentrations determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and digital image analysis of rhodanine-stained sections.

ANIMALS

516 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of dogs for which hepatic biopsy specimens had been submitted between January 1999 and December 2019 for evaluation of copper content were reviewed. Paired hepatic copper concentrations obtained with digital image analysis and AAS or ICP-MS were compared, and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated to test for correlations between qualitative copper accumulation scores and hepatic copper concentrations. For dogs for which ≥ 4 rhodanine-stained hepatic sections were available, intraindividual variation in copper distribution across hepatic sections was evaluated.

RESULTS

Median hepatic copper concentrations obtained with digital image analysis exceeded concentrations obtained with AAS or ICP-MS. Concentrations were also higher in older dogs (≥ 9 years vs < 9 years), dogs of breeds with a typical body weight ≥ 20 kg (44 lb), and dogs with necroinflammatory changes or uneven copper distribution. Qualitative copper accumulation scores were significantly associated with hepatic copper concentrations; however, the correlation between qualitative score and concentration obtained with digital image analysis (rs = 0.94) was higher than the correlation between qualitative score and concentration obtained with AAS (rs = 0.75) or ICP-MS (rs = 0.57). The coefficient of variation for hepatic copper concentrations obtained with digital image analysis was significantly higher for dogs with higher hepatic copper concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that spectroscopic-spectrometric analysis of hepatic biopsy specimens commonly underestimated the concentration obtained by digital image analysis of rhodanine-stained sections.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 1-year-old sexually intact male Holstein-Friesian calf was evaluated at the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health and Food Safety at the University of Glasgow School of Veterinary Medicine. The calf was in good body condition and weighed 390 kg (858 lb) but had had an abnormal hypermetric hopping gait and bilateral hyperextension of the pelvic limbs since birth.

Clinical and Gross Findings

Clinical examination revealed slightly harsh chest sounds. Tens of small (0.5 to 1 cm in diameter), ovoid, alopecic, crusting areas consistent with dermatophilosis were scattered over the right lateral aspect of the neck extending caudally over

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 12-year-old 4.5-kg (9.9-lb) neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of seizures. Five months earlier, the cat had had 2 generalized seizures 3 days apart. After the second seizure, the primary veterinarian had initiated treatment with phenobarbital, which resulted in cessation of seizure episodes. The cat was also receiving benazepril because of proteinuria, which had been previously diagnosed. The cat (tested when a kitten) was negative for circulating FeLV antigen and positive for anti-FIV antibody. Three days prior to evaluation, the cat began having complex, focal seizures that included hypersalivation, twitching of the facial muscles, decreased

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize the association between peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH) or congenital central diaphragmatic hernia (CCDH) and ductal plate malformations (DPMs) in dogs and cats.

ANIMALS

18 dogs and 18 cats with PPDH or CCDH and 19 dogs and 18 cats without PPDH or CCDH.

PROCEDURES

Evaluation of clinical details verified PPDH or CCDH and survival times. Histologic features of nonherniated liver samples were used to categorize DPM. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin-19 distinguished bile duct profiles per portal tract and for Ki-67–assessed cholangiocyte proliferation. Histologic features of herniated liver samples from PPDH or CCDH were compared with those of pathological controls (traumatic diaphragmatic hernia, n = 6; liver lobe torsion, 6; ischemic hepatopathy, 2).

RESULTS

DPM occurred in 13 of 18 dogs with the proliferative-like phenotype predominating and in 15 of 18 cats with evenly distributed proliferative-like and Caroli phenotypes. Congenital hepatic fibrosis DPM was noted in 3 dogs and 2 cats and renal DPM in 3 dogs and 3 cats. No signalment, clinical signs, or clinicopathologic features discriminated DPM. Kaplan Meier survival curves were similar in dogs and cats. Bile duct profiles per portal tract in dogs (median, 5.0; range, 1.4 to 100.8) and cats (6.6; 1.9 to 11.0) with congenital diaphragmatic hernias significantly exceeded those in healthy dogs (1.4; 1.2 to 1.6) and cats (2.3; 1.7 to 2.6). Animals with DPM lacked active cholangiocyte proliferation. Histologic features characterizing malformative bile duct profiles yet without biliary proliferation were preserved in herniated liver lobes in animals with DPM.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

DPM was strongly associated with PPDH and CCDH. Because DPM can impact health, awareness of its coexistence with PPDH or CCDH should prompt biopsy of nonherniated liver tissue during surgical correction of PPDH and CCDH.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine period prevalences of postmortem diagnoses for spinal cord or vertebral column lesions as underlying causes of ataxia (spinal ataxia) in horses.

ANIMALS

2,861 client-owned horses (316 with ataxia [ataxic group] and 2,545 without ataxia [control group]).

PROCEDURES

The medical records database of the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital was searched to identify horses necropsied between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2017. Results were compared between the ataxic and control groups and between various groups of horses in the ataxic group. Period prevalences were determined for the most common causes of ataxia.

RESULTS

2,861 horses underwent full necropsy, and the period prevalences for the most common definitive diagnoses for ataxia were 2.7% (77/2,861) for cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy (CVCM), 1.3% (38/2,861) for equine neuroaxonal dystrophy or equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (eNAD-EDM), and 0.9% (25/2,861) for trauma; the period prevalence of ataxia of unknown origin was 2.0% (56/2,861). Horses in the ataxic group (vs the control group) were more likely to have been warmblood horses (OR, 2.70) and less likely to have been Arabian horses (OR, 0.53). In the ataxic group, horses < 5 (vs ≥ 5) years of age had greater odds of CVCM (OR, 2.82) or eNAD-EDM (OR, 6.17) versus trauma or ataxia of unknown origin. Horses in the ataxic group with CVCM were more likely Thoroughbreds (OR, 2.54), whereas horses with eNAD-EDM were more likely American Quarter Horses (OR, 2.95) and less likely Thoroughbreds (OR, 0.11).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that breed distributions differed for horses with CVCM versus eNAD-EDM; therefore, breed should be considered in the clinical evaluation of spinal ataxia in horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

An 8-year-old 4.3-kg (9.4-lb) spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of progressive behavioral changes of several months’ duration. The owner stated that the cat had been pacing in circles, clockwise and counterclockwise, and acting more aloof. Treatment initiated by a veterinary behaviorist initially consisted of administration of fluoxetine, which was then changed to administration of paroxetine. Despite treatment, the clinical signs became progressively worse. The cat had no prior medical history, and its vaccination status was current. The cat was kept indoors and was the only cat in the household. Given the progression of signs, the cat

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association