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  • Author or Editor: Andreas F. Lehner x
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To determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after single IV or orally administered boluses in common ravens (Corvus corax).


8 healthy common ravens.


Voriconazole (5 mg/mL, 10 mg/kg IV) was administered to 8 birds, and then plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured at various time points by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Starting 6 months later in a randomized 3-treatment 3-period regimen, birds received a single oral dose of voriconazole suspension (10 mg/mL; 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg PO). The study period was May 2015 to March 2016.


Voriconazole (10 mg/kg IV) achieved an initial plasma concentration of 6.31 µg/mL when measured over 21 hours. After oral administration of voriconazole at 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg, the relative bioavailability was 67.5%, 209%, and 183%, respectively. For the 6-mg/kg dose, the maximum plasma concentration was reached at 30 minutes after administration and remained in the therapeutic range of 0.5 to 1 µg/mL for approximately 15 hours. The 12- and 24-mg/kg doses resulted in concentrations in a potentially toxic range.


Voriconazole was well tolerated. All 4 doses resulted in plasma concentrations of voriconazole > 0.5 µg/mL, which is the minimum inhibitory concentration recommended for pathogenic species of Aspergillus fungi known to affect birds. A single dose of voriconazole administered as 10 mg/kg IV or 6 mg/kg PO resulted in recommended target plasma concentrations. Administration of voriconazole 6 mg/kg PO 2 to 3 times daily may be adequate for treatment without exceeding the toxic range.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) after IV and oral administration to dogs and effects of TTM administration on trace mineral concentrations.

ANIMALS 8 adult Beagles and Beagle crossbreds (4 sexually intact males and 4 sexually intact females).

PROCEDURES Dogs received TTM (1 mg/kg) IV and orally in a randomized crossover study. Serum molybdenum and copper concentrations were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in samples obtained 0 to 72 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetics was determined via noncompartmental analysis.

RESULTS For IV administration, mean ± SD terminal elimination rate constant, maximum concentration, area under the curve, and half-life were 0.03 ± 0.01 hours−1, 4.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL, 30.7 ± 5.4 μg/mL•h, and 27.7 ± 6.8 hours, respectively. For oral administration, mean ± SD terminal elimination rate constant, time to maximum concentration, maximum concentration, area under the curve, and half-life were 0.03 ± 0.01 hours−1, 3.0 ± 3.5 hours, 0.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL, 6.5 ± 8.0 μg/mL•h, and 26.8 ± 8.0 hours, respectively. Oral bioavailability was 21 ± 22%. Serum copper concentrations increased significantly after IV and oral administration. Emesis occurred after IV (2 dogs) and oral administration (3 dogs).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pharmacokinetics for TTM after a single IV and oral administration was determined for clinically normal dogs. Absorption of TTM after oral administration was variable. Increased serum copper concentrations suggested that TTM mobilized tissue copper. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the potential therapeutic use of TTM in copper-associated chronic hepatitis of dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research