OBJECTIVE To determine whether dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) had a low plasma mean platelet component (MPC) concentration and whether MPC was associated with outcome.
DESIGN Retrospective case-control study and survival analysis.
ANIMALS 95 dogs with IMHA (cases) as well as 95 healthy dogs and 95 sick dogs without IMHA (controls) matched to cases by age, reproductive status, and breed.
PROCEDURES Plasma MPC concentration at initial examination was compared among groups. For dogs with IMHA only, sex, age, serum urea and bilirubin concentrations, Hct, platelet count, and plasma fibrinogen, D-dimer, and MPC concentrations were evaluated for associations with survival to 42 days after initial examination.
RESULTS Plasma MPC concentration was significantly lower in dogs with IMHA than in the other 2 dog groups. In dogs with IMHA, plasma MPC concentration was the only factor significantly associated with outcome. The optimal plasma MPC concentration cutoff value for predicting nonsurvival of dogs with IMHA was 19.1 g/dL; values ≤ 19.1 g/dL were associated with nonsurvival. Likewise, the survival curve for dogs with plasma MPC concentrations ≤ 19.1 g/dL differed significantly from that for dogs with values > 19.1 g/dL. The mean estimated risk of death for dogs with IMHA decreased by 16% for every unit increase in plasma MPC concentration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In dogs with IMHA, platelets appeared to have been activated to a greater degree, as determined by lower plasma MPC concentrations, than in healthy dogs or sick dogs without IMHA. Plasma MPC concentration at initial examination may be useful for predicting prognosis in dogs with IMHA.
Objective—To determine whether dogs with ascites secondary to right-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) have bleeding disorders associated with hypofibrinogenemia and discordant plasma fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and D-dimer assay results (ie, a circulating concentration of FDPs higher than the reference range and a circulating concentration of D-dimer within the reference range).
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—80 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Dogs with ascites secondary to right-sided CHF (group 1; n = 20), unhealthy dogs without cardiac disease (group 2; 40), and dogs with left-sided CHF (group 3; 20) were included in the study. Urine bile acids-to-creatinine concentration ratios were calculated as a marker of liver function. Differences among groups regarding coagulation profile analysis results and prevalence of discordant FDPs and D-dimer assay results were determined.
Results—No significant differences were detected among the 3 groups regarding urine bile acids-to-creatinine concentration ratios. Plasma fibrinogen concentration was significantly lower for group 1 versus groups 2 or 3. Prevalence of discordant FDPs and D-dimer assay results was significantly higher for group 1 versus groups 2 or 3. Eighteen group 1 dogs had discordant FDPs and D-dimer assay results. Ten of these dogs had concurrent hypofibrinogenemia, 2 of which had clinical signs of bleeding. Only 10 dogs in groups 2 or 3 had discordant FDPs and D-dimer assay results; none of these dogs had hypofibrinogenemia or clinical signs of bleeding.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with right-sided CHF and ascites may be at increased risk for primary hyperfibrinogenolysis (ie, hypofibrinogenemia and discordant FDPs and D-dimer assay results).