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Abstract

Objective—To assess anti-inflammatory effects of carprofen (CPF), CPF enantiomers, and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in sheep.

Animals—8 sheep.

Procedure—Sheep with SC tissue cages were used. After intracaveal injection of 1% carrageenan, sheep were given single doses of racemic (Rac; 50:50 mixture of S[+] and R[–] enantiomers)-CPF (4.0 mg/kg), R(–)CPF (2.0 mg/kg), S(+)CPF (2.0 mg/kg), L-NAME (25 mg/kg), and placebo (PLB) IV in a crossover design.

Results—Rac-CPF and S(+)CPF inhibited serum thromboxane2 (TXB2) and exudate prostaglandin (PG)E2 generation significantly for 32 hours. Maximal inhibitory effect for serum TXB2 was 79 ± 3% for Rac- CPF and 68 ± 6% for S(+)CPF. The Rac-CPF and S(+)CPF induced 50 to 98% reversible inhibitory effect for exudate PGE2 generation during a 4- to 32- hour period. The R(–)CPF and L-NAME attenuated serum TXB2 generation significantly. The R(–)CPF did not affect exudate PGE2 production, whereas L-NAME potentiated exudate, PGE2 generation by 30% during 4 to 32 hours. The S(+)CPF and L-NAME increased leukotriene B4 generation and WBC recruitment in exudate although significance was achieved only at a few time points. Increase in skin temperature over inflammatory cages was effectively inhibited by Rac- CPF and S(+)CPF but not by R(–)CPF.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Carprofen is a potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor in vivo in sheep, and its anti-inflammatory effects are attributable only to S(+)CPF in Rac-CPF. Nitric oxide may enhance eicosanoid production and accelerate the acute inflammatory process. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63: 782–788)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A study was designed to compare use of an numerical rating scale (nrs) and a visual analogue scale (vas) for subjective assessment of lameness, using sheep as a model. The nrs consisted of 5 divisions, 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4; 4 of these divisions (1–4) described lameness. The vas used a 100-mm horizontal line with vertical bars at either end; one end was labeled 'sound' and the other was labeled 'could not be more lame.' Two independent observers graded lameness in 62 sheep, and between- and within-observer differences were assessed for each scoring system to compare the nrs with the vas.

Results indicated no significant differences between the 2 observers scoring lameness, using either the vas or the nrs. The scores obtained, using the vas, were not normally distributed, although differences between scores for the 2 observers were. The nrs scores followed a normal distribution pattern. Investigation of repeated measurement for the same sheep, using both scales, revealed no significant difference between either. A comparison of the nrs and vas scores made by each observer indicated that although correlation was good (observer 1; r = 0.94; observer 2; r = 0.95), there was not perfect agreement. The maximal nrs score of 4 was associated with vas values > 68 mm, indicating that the nrs divisions did not reflect equal increases in lameness. The vas and nrs scores for each observer were highly reproducible, although they were more variable for sheep that were regarded as moderately lame.

Results indicate that although the nrs and vas compared favorably with respect to repeatability, reproducibility, and use by 2 observers, the vas is inherently more sensitive. In addition, the nrs and vas should not be used interchangeably.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To validate the use of a novel questionnaire as an instrument for measurement of chronic pain in dogs through its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL).

Animals—108 dogs with chronic degenerative joint disease and 26 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Questionnaire responses were subjected to factor analysis (FA) and questionnaire scores to discriminant analysis to evaluate construct validity. Questionnaire scores were used to explore the potential of this instrument for minimizing respondent bias and for evaluative purposes.

Results—FA results revealed a sensible factor structure accounting for 65% of the variance in data, with factors identifiable as domains of HRQL in dogs affected by chronic pain. Further evidence for construct validity was provided when questionnaire scores were used to discriminate, on the basis of 218 questionnaires, between dogs with clinician-awarded pain scores of 0 and dogs with pain scores ≥ 1 (88% discrimination, with 95% of no-pain group dogs and 87% of some-pain group dogs correctly categorized). Use of the questionnaire provided minimized respondent bias.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Validation of the questionnaire as an instrument for discriminative and evaluative measurements of orthopedic chronic pain through its impact on HRQL in dogs was provided. Use of the questionnaire, with further testing and refinement, may support improved clinical decision making, facilitate development of evidence-based therapeutic options for chronic diseases, and help veterinarians and owners define humane end points in dogs.

Impact for Human Medicine—Information gained here may provide improved measurements of clinical change in animal studies that use dogs with naturally occurring chronic pain to evaluate novel human treatment protocols.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a reliable, validated questionnaire that can be used for the assessment of chronic pain and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in dogs.

Sample Population—17 owners of dogs that had chronic pain associated with chronic degenerative joint disease and 165 other dog owners.

Procedures—Psychometric methods were used to identify relevant domains, create an item pool, select and validate items, and construct and preliminarily test a structured questionnaire. Relevant domains were identified through semi structured interviews. Descriptor-generating exercises provided the terms owners used to describe these domains and formed an item pool. A selection from this pool was validated and used to construct a questionnaire that underwent preliminary testing.

Results—The structured questionnaire contained 109 simple, familiar, descriptive terms associated with good health or chronic pain (most describing subtle aspects of behavior that owners interpreted as expressions of subjective experiences of their dogs) for 13 possible HRQL domains. Each descriptor was associated with a 7-point numeric scale.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The questionnaire was intended to facilitate rapid, sensitive, and accurate rating of a comprehensive range of relevant domains by naïve raters with minimal burden on respondents. The principles underlying the development and design of this structured questionnaire offer a novel approach to the proxy measurement of HRQL and changes in HRQL associated with chronic pain for a range of animal species.

Impact for Human Medicine—This novel approach may be applicable to other nonverbal populations (eg, young children or elderly people with cognitive impairment). (Am J Vet Res 2004;65;1077–1084)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Pharmacokinetic variables of propofol were investigated in 6 mixed-breed dogs, and the effect of medetomidine (10 μg/kg of body weight) on these kinetics was investigated using a two-way crossover design. On 2 occasions, dogs received either a bolus dose of propofol sufficient to allow endotracheal intubation, followed by an infusion of propofol (0.4 mg/kg/min) for 120 minutes, or medetomidine (10 μg/kg, im), 15 minutes prior to induction of anesthesia as described, followed by infusion of propofol (0.2 mg/kg/min). Dogs given medetomidine received atipamezole (50 μg/kg, im) at the end of the 120-minute propofol infusion. Blood propofol concentration was measured, using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Mean elimination half-life, blood clearance, mean residence time, and mean volume of distribution at steady state, were 486.2 minutes, 34.4 ml/kg/min, 301.8 minutes, and 6.04 L/kg, respectively, in the absence of medetomidine, and 136.9 minutes, 36.2 ml/ kg/min, 215.1 minutes, and 3.38 L/kg, respectively, in the presence of medetomidine. Mean time to walking without ataxia was 174 minutes in the nonpremedicated dogs (with a median blood propofol concentration of 2.2 μg/ml) and was 160 minutes in the premedicated dogs in which median blood propofol concentration was 1.03 μg/ml.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish interval level measurement in a prototype composite measure pain scale (CMPS) for assessment of acute pain in dogs and to investigate the scale's validity.

Animals—20 clinically normal dogs, 20 dogs with medical conditions, and 117 dogs undergoing surgery.

Procedure—First, a scaling model was applied to the CMPS descriptors to establish weights for each and create a continuous scale. Subsequently, 5 observers independently used the scale to score signs of pain in 4 groups of dogs (control dogs, dogs with medical conditions, and 40 dogs undergoing soft tissue or orthopedic surgery). Scores from each group and from groups of conditions perceived to cause no, mild, moderate, and severe pain were compared. In addition, the scale was applied to 77 dogs undergoing orthopedic or soft tissue surgery and scores were compared with simultaneously derived numeric rating scale (NRS) scores; comparisons were made between surgical groups and with time after surgery.

Results—Calculated scale descriptor weights ranged from –2.0 to 2.0 and were transformed to create a continuous scale from 0 to 10. Median CMPS scores differed significantly among the 4 study groups and among pain severity groups and were typically greater with increasing perceived pain severity. Agreement was determined between CMPS and NRS scores, and there was a significant and expected time effect and difference between the CMPS scores of dogs undergoing orthopedic and soft tissue surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that this interval level measurement scale is a valid measure of acute pain in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2154–2166)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine cardiopulmonary effects of total IV anesthesia with propofol and medetomidine in ponies and effect of atipamezole on recovery.

Animals—10 ponies.

Procedure—After sedation was induced by IV administration of medetomidine (7 μg/kg of body weight), anesthesia was induced by IV administration of propofol (2 mg/kg) and maintained for 4 hours with infusions of medetomidine (3.5 μg/kg per hour) and propofol (0.07 to 0.11 mg/kg per minute). Spontaneous respiration was supplemented with oxygen. Cardiopulmonary measurements and blood concentrations of propofol were determined during anesthesia. Five ponies received atipamezole (60 μg/kg) during recovery.

Results—During anesthesia, mean cardiac index and heart rate increased significantly until 150 minutes, then decreased until cessation of anesthesia. Mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance index increased significantly between 150 minutes and 4 hours. In 4 ponies, PaO2 decreased to < 60 mm Hg. Mean blood propofol concentrations from 20 minutes after induction onwards ranged from 2.3 to 3.5 μg/ml. Recoveries were without complications and were complete within 28 minutes with atipamezole administration and 39 minutes without atipamezole administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—During total IV anesthesia of long duration with medetomidine-propofol, cardiovascular function is comparable to or better than under inhalation anesthesia. This technique may prove suitable in equids in which prompt recovery is essential; however, in some animals severe hypoxia may develop and oxygen supplementation may be necessary. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1428–1435)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To investigate the reliability of 3 scales used for assessment of pain in dogs.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

50 dogs that had surgery.

Procedure

Dogs were allocated into 3 groups (group 1, 25 dogs assessed 1 hour after the end of surgery; group 2, 41 dogs assessed between 21 and 27 hours after the end of surgery; group 3, 16 dogs assessed on the day of surgery and on the subsequent day). Each dog was scored for pain 4 times by 3 (groups 1 and 3) or 4 (group 2) veterinarians, using all 3 scales (ie, simple descriptive, numerical rating, and visual analogue) during each scoring period. Analysis of data was performed using ANOVA, loglinear modeling, calculation of reproducibility coefficients, and Cohen's kappa statistic.

Results

Significant variability existed among observers for use of all 3 scales. Variability among observers and between observers and dogs accounted for 29 to 36% of the total variability (group 1, 36.1 and 32.3% and group 2, 35.1 and 29.7%, for visual analogue scale and numerical rating scale scores, respectively). Kappa statistic values calculated for data obtained by use of the simple descriptive scale indicated that agreement was fair for the observers (group 1, 0.244 to 0.299; group 2, 0.211 to 0.368; group 3, 0.233 to 0.321).

Clinical Implications

Analysis of pain score data in dogs must incorporate observer variability when more than 1 observer is used. Comparative analysis of data accrued from pain studies in various hospitals must account for this variability. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:61–66)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association