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  • Author or Editor: Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg x
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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 4-year-old male Dachshund was examined following a bite attack that had occurred 5 days previously. The dog had acutely deteriorated despite IV antimicrobial treatment and fluid therapy.

CLINICAL FINDINGS On initial examination, the patient was recumbent with signs of septic shock and a flail chest. Three penetrating wounds in the left thoracic wall with malodorous discharge were evident. The animal trauma triage score was 8 out of 18. Thoracic and abdominal radiography revealed displaced fractures of the left seventh, eighth, and ninth ribs and extensive subcutaneous emphysema. Additionally, a marked diffuse bronchointerstitial pattern, areas of alveolar pattern, and pneumothorax were present bilaterally.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Open surgical debridement with left lateral lung lobectomy and resection of portions of the left thoracic wall were performed. Extensive soft tissue loss precluded primary reconstruction. The defect was stabilized with a polypropylene mesh implant, and negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) at −100 mm Hg was initiated. Microbial culture and susceptibility testing of tissue samples indicated the presence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. The NPWT dressing was changed 2, 5, and 7 days after surgery. Treatment was well tolerated, and the mesh was completely covered with granulation tissue 10 days after surgery. On follow-up 5, 7, 12, and 19 months after surgery, the dog was clinically normal with no apparent complications.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that NPWT may be a valuable adjunct when treating small animal patients with severe thoracic trauma.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC-50) of carboplatin, cisplatin, and doxorubicin in cell cultures of mammary gland tumors obtained from dogs and to assess whether in vitro efficacy was within the range of clinically relevant concentrations.

Sample Population—30 mammary gland tumors excised from dogs.

Procedure—Cell cultures were established from the 30 tumors. Cultures then were treated with carboplatin, cisplatin, or doxorubicin. Growth inhibition of cultures was assessed via DNA measurement 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment. The IC-50 values were calculated by use of linear interpolation.

Results—Cultures varied in their pattern of susceptibility. Doxorubicin induced significantly lower IC-50 values than the platinum derivatives. Cisplatin and carboplatin had comparable effects. The IC-50 values for carboplatin and doxorubicin were in the range of clinically relevant concentrations, but only part of the cisplatin cultures had IC-50 values within clinically relevant concentrations. We did not detect differences in the in vitro susceptibility among subtypes of tumors (ie, adenocarcinoma, solid carcinoma, malignant mixed tumor).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The IC-50 values determined in this study allowed assessment of in vitro drug efficacy of chemotherapeutics in cultures of mammary gland tumors obtained from dogs. Variations in susceptibility were evident and emphasize the importance of assessing susceptibility and resistance patterns for each tumor. Prospective studies to assess direct correlations between in vitro and in vivo efficacy must be performed to determine the clinical predictive value of this in vitro chemosensitivity assay for treatment of dogs with mammary gland tumors. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1825–1830)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the reliability of range-of-motion (ROM) measurements and describe physiologic differences in ROM or habituation effects during gait analysis of healthy dogs walking on a treadmill.

ANIMALS

11 orthopedically normal dogs.

PROCEDURES

ROM of appendicular joints was determined for each dog while walking on a treadmill on 3 consecutive examination days and once again 6 weeks later. Significant differences in ROM between examination days were determined and quantified. As a measure of reproducibility, the coefficient of variation for repeated measurements was calculated, as were the minimum differences necessary to distinguish between physiologic variation and true change in ROM.

RESULTS

Mean ROM of the shoulder, elbow, and carpal joints varied among examination days between 29.9° and 33.1°, 49.4° and 52.8°, and 7.7° and 88.1°, respectively. Mean associated minimum differences were 12.0°, 14.1°, and 35.6°. Mean ROM of the hip, knee, and tarsal joints varied between 32.9° and 35.8°, 33.7° and 36.8°, and 31.7° and 33.5°, respectively. Mean associated minimum differences were 16.2°, 14.0°, and 9.2°. Only ROM of the elbow joint was reproducible to a small degree. Few systematic effects were detected.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Measurement of ROM in healthy dogs walking on a treadmill was shown to be diagnostically unreliable owing to high variation among examination days. However, random physiologic fluctuations could be distinguished from systematic effects, demonstrating the importance of reliably applicable threshold values for follow-up treadmill examinations. The applicability of the minimum differences determined here to orthopedically diseased dogs remains to be determined.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate whether an actual improvement in gait could be differentiated from physiologic differences or habituation effects during gait analysis of dogs.

ANIMALS

11 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

On 4 examination days, kinetic parameters were measured while dogs were walking on a treadmill. Differences in mean parameter values and habituation effects (ie, effect sizes) were quantified and compared among examination days. Coefficients of variation for repeated measurements were calculated to determine measurement reproducibility, and minimum differences were calculated to distinguish between physiologic fluctuation and an actual change in gait pattern.

RESULTS

Among the 4 examination days, mean absolute differences in peak vertical force and vertical impulse (VI) varied from 1.5% to 5.3% of body weight (BW) and 0.9% to 1.8% of BW·s, respectively. Mean absolute differences in the percentage of stance-phase duration (%SPD) and relative stride length (RSL) varied from 0.9% to 3.2% and 1.7% to 3.0%, respectively. Reproducibility of parameter measurements was good. Values for %SPD had the lowest amount of dispersion and largest effect size, suggesting a habituation effect for this parameter. Calculated minimum differences among the days for peak vertical force, VI, %SPD, and RSL did not exceed 9.9% of BW, 3.3% of BW·s, 5.8 percentage points, and 5.2 percentage points, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The %SPD of healthy dogs walking on a treadmill was the most sensitive and diagnostically reliable of the measured kinetic parameters, in contrast to VI and RSL. Findings suggested that actual changes can be distinguished from random physiologic fluctuations during gait analysis of dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research