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Objective—To determine the prevalence of seizures in cats after head trauma.

Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—52 cats with head trauma.

Procedures—Information was obtained from medical records of cats with head trauma and via telephone interviews of owners at least 2 years after cats had head trauma. Severity of head trauma in cats was classified with the modified Glasgow coma scale (mGCS), and the association between scores and development of seizures was determined.

Results—9 cats had moderate head trauma (mGCS score, 9 to 14), and 43 cats had mild head trauma (mGCS score, 15 to 18). None of the cats developed seizures during the follow-up period (≥ 2 years after head injury). The calculated 95% confidence interval for prevalence of seizures in cats after head injury was 0% to 5.6%. There was no significant relationship between severity of head trauma and the risk of seizures in cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated the probability that cats with mild to moderate head trauma would develop posttraumatic seizures was low. However, clinicians should monitor cats with a history of head trauma for development of secondary epilepsy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To identify mutations in canine mammary tumors.


10 tumor-bearing dogs.


Culture of neoplastic cells originating from mammary tumors was performed, and trypsin-G banding was used for cytogenetic investigations. The same tumors were subjected to molecular genetic screening by use of DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, DNA elution, and DNA sequencing for ras oncogenes and the p53 tumor suppressor gene.


A broad spectrum of chromosome aberrations was observed, including trisomies, reciprocal translocations, and structural and numerical X-chromosome alterations and deletions. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a tumor suppressor p53 gene mutation in codon 249 of exon 7 in one instance. Interestingly, analyzed mammary tumors were free of mutations in N-ras, K-ras and H-ras, exons 1 and 2.


Chromosome alterations are wide-spread in canine mammary tumors, but no ras family mutations were detected in tumors from these 10 dogs.

Clinical Relevance

Knowledge about chromosome, oncogene, and tumor suppressor gene damage could be helpful for diagnosis and prognosis of neoplastic diseases in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:69–78)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine ultrasonographic features and reference values of the anatomy of the abdomen of common rats (Rattus norvegicus).

Animals—20 adult male and 20 adult female rats.

Procedures—A complete abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed with the rats sedated. The cadavers of 4 rats were used for anatomic comparisons. Two cadavers were dissected and 2 cadavers were frozen and then cross-sectioned by use of an electric bandsaw. Slices were cleaned with water and photographed on each side. Correlations between variables were determined.

Results—The ultrasonographic anatomy of the abdomen was determined, including measurements of the kidneys and adrenal glands and thickness of the walls of the stomach (saccus caecus, fundus, and pylorus), duodenum, and cecum. A significant positive correlation between kidney size and body weight was detected. The dorsoventral measurements of the left and right adrenal gland were significantly different, regardless of sex. Dorsoventral measurements of the right adrenal gland were significantly different between males and females.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ultrasonographic images and data provided an atlas of the ultrasonographic anatomy of common rats that may be useful to veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and researchers.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the minimal electric threshold of neurostimulation dorsally and ventrally to the interarcuate ligament in the lumbosacral area necessary to cause muscle contraction of the hind limb or tail and determine whether a continuous electrical stimulation applied to an insulated needle during lumbosacral epidural needle placement could be used to distinguish the epidural from the intrathecal space in rabbits.

Animals—24 New Zealand white rabbits.

Procedures—Rabbits received iohexol (0.2 mL/kg) either dorsally (group 1) or ventrally to the interarcuate ligament in the lumbosacral area (groups 2 and 3). Correct placement of the needle was determined by use of the loss of resistance to injection technique (group 2) or a continuous electrical stimulation (group 3) and confirmed by examination of the iohexol distribution pattern on radiographs.

Results—In all rabbits of group 1, iohexol was injected in the lumbosacral area, outside the epidural space. In groups 2 and 3, iohexol was injected intrathecally. No pure iohexol epidural migration of iohexol was observed. Mean ± SD minimal electric threshold to elicit a motor response was 1.2 ± 0.3 mA, 0.3 ± 0.1 mA, and 0.3 ± 0.1 mA in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neurostimulation was a useful technique to determine correct intrathecal needle placement in rabbits but failed to detect the lumbosacral epidural space when the common technique, used in dogs and cats for the lumbosacral epidural approach, was used.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in pigs to assess bacterial contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (balf) obtained by use of the method and to determine the aerobic bacterial species in bronchoalveolar airways of healthy pigs. Bacterial contamination of balf caused by insertion of the bronchoscope was evaluated, using a chromogenic bacterial tracer strain, and was found to be 0.22% of total colony-forming units (cfu), with range between 0 and 1.6%. A total of 164 pulmonary-healthy pigs from 6 closed herds were selected. The balf obtained from these pigs were examined bacteriologically. Bacteria could not be isolated from 10.4% of all balf; 5.5% of the balf samples yielded pure cultures; and 84.1% yielded mixed aerobic bacterial growth. In balf from 29.2% of the pigs, ≤ 5 × 102 cfu of bacteria/ml were isolated. The total number of bacteria in balf from 50% of the pigs varied between 5 × 102 and 103 cfu/ml; 10.4% of balf samples contained between 103 cfu/ml and 5 × 103 cfu/ml. More than 1 bacterial species were isolated from a single lung lavage of 84.1% of the pigs. Up to 6 species were isolated from a single balf sample. A total of 443 bacterial isolates were differentiated into 25 bacterial genera and species. Samples of balf yielded staphylococci (67.6%: Staphylococcus hyicus from 13.4% of the samples and S aureus from 2.4%), α-hemolytic streptococci (49.4%), Escherichia coli (42.1%), non-hemolytic streptococci (26.2%), Klebsiella spp (18.3%), micrococci (12.8%), and Coryneformes (11.0%). Other bacterial species were found, but less frequently. In our study, balf from all pigs yielded < 5 × 103 cfu/ml. Thus, low numbers of bacteria known to be facultative pathogens were isolated from balf without causing detectable pneumonia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare the nutrient composition of commercially available dog milk replacers with that of dog milk.

Design—Prospective, cross-sectional study.

Sample—5 dog milk samples and 15 samples of commercial dog milk replacers.

Procedures—Dog milk and milk replacers were analyzed for concentrations of total protein, essential amino acids, sugars, total fat, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus. Energy density was calculated. Results from milk replacers were compared with the range of the concentration of each nutrient in milk samples from mature dogs as well as the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for puppy growth.

Results—Milk replacers varied widely in caloric density and concentration of nutrients such as calcium, protein, and fat. Calcium concentration was lower in 14 of 15 milk replacers than in the dog milk samples. Docosahexaenoic acid was undetectable in 12 of 15 milk replacers but present in all dog milk samples. All milk replacers had numerous essential nutrients outside of the range of the dog milk samples, and many had concentrations of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus less than the NRC minimal requirement or recommended allowance. Compared with NRC recommendations, some dog milk samples had concentrations of total protein, linoleic acid, calcium, or phosphorus less than the recommended allowance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that there was substantial variation in nutrient composition of 15 dog milk replacers and that some products were closer approximations of dog milk than others. Nearly all products would benefit from more appropriate calcium, amino acids, and essential fatty acids concentrations and better feeding directions.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the origin and degree of activity of nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in explants of cranial cruciate ligaments (CCLs) obtained from dogs and cultured with and without inflammatory activators.

Sample Population—Tissue specimens obtained from 7 healthy adult Beagles that were (mean ± SD) 4.5 ± 0.5 years old and weighed 12.5 ± 0.8 kg.

Procedure—The CCLs were harvested immediately after dogs were euthanatized, and specimens were submitted for explant culture. Cultures were stimulated by incubation with a combination of interluekin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and lipopolysaccharide, or they were not stimulated. Culture supernatants were examined for production of NO nitrite-nitrate metabolites (NOts) and activity of MMP. Cultured specimens were evaluated by use of immunohistochemical analysis to detect activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS).

Results—All ligament explants produced measurable amounts of NOts. Stimulated cultures produced significantly more NOts after incubation for 24 and 48 hours, compared with nonstimulated cultures. Production of MMP in supernatants after incubation for 48 hours was significantly higher in stimulated cultures than in nonstimulated cultures. Cells with positive staining for iNOS were detected on all slides. Positively stained cells were predominantly chondroid metaplastic. There was a significant difference in intensity of cell staining between stimulated and nonstimulated cultures.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Explant cultures of intact CCLs obtained from dogs produce iNOS-induced NO. Stimulation of chondroid metaplastic cells in CCL of dogs by use of inflammatory activators can increase production of iNOS, NOts, and MMP. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1423–1428)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare response rates and remission and survival times in dogs with lymphoma treated with a continuous, multiagent, doxorubicin-based chemotherapeutic protocol or with a short-term single-agent protocol incorporating doxorubicin.

Design—Nonrandomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—114 dogs with lymphoma.

Procedures—Dogs were treated with a chemotherapeutic protocol consisting of L-asparaginase, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and prednisolone (n = 87) or doxorubicin alone (27).

Results—63 of 86 (73%) dogs treated with the multiagent protocol (data on response was unavailable for 1 dog) and 14 of 27 (52%) dogs treated with the single-agent protocol had a complete remission. Dogs with lymphoma classified as substage ≤ and dogs with a high BUN concentration at the time of initial diagnosis were significantly less likely to have a complete remission. No significant difference in remission or survival time could be demonstrated between treatment groups. Incidence of hematologic and gastrointestinal tract toxicoses did not differ between treatment groups, with the exception that vomiting was more common among dogs treated with the multiagent protocol.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this population of dogs, we were not able to identify any significant difference in remission or survival times between dogs with lymphoma treated with a continuous, multiagent chemotherapeutic protocol and dogs treated with a short-term single-agent protocol involving doxorubicin.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association