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  • Author or Editor: Andrea Lear x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether copper oxide wire particles (COWP) administered as an oral bolus effectively decrease fecal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) egg counts in adult alpacas.

ANIMALS

57 adult alpacas.

PROCEDURES

A double-blind clinical trial was performed during the months of April through August 2019. Adult alpacas enrolled in the trial were administered 2 g of COWP or a placebo control capsule PO on day 0 and day 45. On day 0 and at 15-day intervals, fecal samples were collected, and Modified McMaster fecal egg counts (FEC) were performed as well as physical examinations, including FAMACHA scoring and body condition scoring (BCS). Hematocrits were measured in 30-day intervals (days 0, 30, 60, and 90). Results were compared across groups.

RESULTS

A significant decrease in mean FEC was observed in the COWP-treated group over time, compared with the placebo group. Mean BCS, FAMACHA score, and Hct did not differ significantly between groups. No clinical evidence of copper toxicosis was observed.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Oral administration of COWP was determined to be a safe and effective method of reducing GIN FEC in adult alpacas.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG1) concentrations in maternal (jugular vein) and fetal (uterine vein) circulations and amniotic fluid samples between pregnant ewes that were and were not experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).

ANIMALS

11 healthy pregnant yearling ewes.

PROCEDURES

Before study initiation, all ewes were naïve to BVDV and confirmed pregnant by transabdominal ultrasonography at approximately 60 days of gestation. At 65 days of gestation, ewes were intranasally inoculated with a noncytopathic BVDV type 1b strain (concentration, 107 TCID50/mL; 2 mL/nostril; n = 6) or an equal volume of BVDV-free viral culture medium (control; 5). A blood sample was collected for measurement of PAG1 concentration before inoculation. At 80 days of gestation, each ewe was anesthetized and underwent an ovariohysterectomy. While sheep were anesthetized, blood samples from the jugular and uterine veins and an amniotic fluid sample were collected for measurement of PAG1 concentration. Fetal tissues underwent real-time PCR analysis for BVDV RNA, and placental specimens underwent histologic evaluation and immunohistochemical staining for BVDV antigen.

RESULTS

At 80 days of gestation, BVDV RNA in fetal tissues and mild placentitis were detected in 5 of 6 BVDV-inoculated ewes. Mean PAG1 concentrations in the maternal and fetal circulations of BVDV-inoculated ewes were significantly less than those in control ewes. Mean amniotic fluid PAG1 concentration did not differ significantly between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Concentration of PAG1 in the maternal circulation may be a useful biomarker for determining placental health in sheep after viral infection of the reproductive tract.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate IM injection of oxytetracycline as an experimental model to induce pain and assess the analgesic efficacy of flunixin meglumine (FM) in dairy cows.

ANIMALS

15 healthy nonlactating Jersey (n = 10) and Holstein (5) cows.

PROCEDURES

In the first of 2 experiments, 5 Jerseys were administered oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg, IM), divided between the right side of the neck and left hind limb. The left side of the neck and right hind limb received sham injections. Cows were also randomly assigned to receive FM (2.2 mg/kg, IV; n = 3) or an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.044 mL/kg, IV; control; 2) once daily for 5 days. The mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) was measured before oxytetracycline administration and at predetermined times after each injection of the assigned treatment. Experiment 2 was similar to experiment 1 except it involved 5 Jerseys and 5 Holsteins, oxytetracycline was injected only in a hind limb, and the assigned treatment was administered for 10 days.

RESULTS

For both experiments, mean MNT for the oxytetracycline injection site was consistently less than that for the sham injection site in the hind limbs, and mean MNT at the hind limb oxytetracycline injection site for FM-treated cows was greater than that for control cows beginning on day 3.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IM injection of oxytetracycline in a hind limb reliably induced signs of pain in dairy cows and, with validation, might be useful as an experimental model for assessing pain mitigation strategies in cattle.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research