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  • Author or Editor: Andrea L. Smith x
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Objective—To determine outcome of cystoscopic-guided transection for treatment of ectopic ureters in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—16 female dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent cystoscopic-guided transection of the membrane separating unilateral or bilateral ectopic ureters from the urethra and bladder between May 2005 and May 2008 were reviewed. Postoperative outcome was determined by use of telephone interviews conducted 1 to 36 months after the procedure.

Results—4 dogs had complete resolution of urinary incontinence with cystoscopic-guided transection alone, an additional 5 dogs had complete resolution with a combination of cystoscopic-guided transection and phenylpropanolamine administration, and an additional 4 dogs had an improvement in urinary control, although urinary incontinence persisted. Outcome could not be assessed in the remaining 3 dogs because of collagen injections in the urethra at the time of ureteral transection (n = 2) or nephrectomy secondary to unilateral hydronephrosis (1).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that cystoscopic-guided transection may be an acceptable alternative to traditional surgical correction of ectopic ureter in dogs. Most complications associated with the cystoscopic procedure were minor and easily managed.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine pharmacokinetic variables of mivacurium chloride after IV administration in dogs.


5 healthy Labrador Retrievers.


Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with halothane in oxygen. Dogs were ventilated mechanically to an end-tidal PCO2 value between 35 and 40 mm Hg. Heart rate, direct blood pressure, and arterial pH were recorded throughout the experiment. Core temperature, end-tidal PCO2 , and halothane concentration were kept constant throughout the experiment. Paired blood samples for determination of plasma cholinesterase activity were collected prior to administration of a bolus of mivacurium (0.05 mg/kg of body weight), which was administered IV during a 2-second period. Arterial blood samples were obtained for determination of plasma mivacurium concentration 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120, 150, and 180 minutes after administration of mivacurium. Blood was collected into tubes containing EDTA and 0.25% echothiophate. Mivacurium concentration was determined, using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.


For the trans-trans isomer, mean ± SEM volume of distribution was 0.18 ± 0.024 L/kg, median half-life was 34.9 minutes (range, 26.7 to 53.5 minutes), and clearance was 12 ± 2 ml/min/kg. For the cis-trans isomer, values were 0.31 ± 0.05 L/kg, 43.4 minutes (range, 31.5 to 69.3 minutes), and 15 ± 2 ml/min/kg, respectively. Values for the cis-cis isomer were not calculated, because it was not detectable in plasma 60 minutes after mivacurium administration in all 5 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The trans-trans and cis-trans isomers of mivacurium have a long half-life and slow clearance in healthy dogs anesthetized with halothane. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1051-1054)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research