Objective—To determine variations in cytologic counts of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid attributable to month of collection, first and second aliquots, and left and right lung sites in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).
Animals—5 horses with RAO and 5 healthy horses without respiratory tract disease.
Procedures—Horses were housed in a stable for 5 months prior to and throughout the study. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from the right and left lung of each horse 3 times at monthly intervals (February, March, and April). Each BAL fluid collection was performed by use of 2 incremental instillations of 250 mL of isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution in the same bronchial site. Analysis of BAL fluid included volume of BAL fluid recovered, a CBC, and differential cytologic counts.
Results—Volume of BAL fluid recovered and cytologic counts did not differ in horses with RAO across time or between right and left lungs, except for the number of mast cells. Horses with RAO had significantly lower volumes of BAL fluid recovered, significantly lower percentages of macrophages and lymphocytes, and significantly higher percentages of neutrophils than did healthy horses. Despite individual variation, all horses with RAO had > 25% neutrophils throughout the study period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite variation among horses, BAL fluid cytologic counts were repeatable over short and long periods and samples can be used for longitudinal studies as a diagnostic tool of pulmonary inflammation in horses with RAO.
Objective—To determine the minimal effective
dosage of omeprazole oral paste for the prevention of
naturally occurring ulcers in horses starting race training.
Procedure—Horses in the dose selection portion of
the study were sham dose treated or received 1 mg
(0.45 mg/lb) or 2 mg (0.9 mg/lb) of omeprazole/kg,
PO, every 24 hours for 28 days or 4 mg of omeprazole/
kg (1.8 mg/lb; loading dose), PO, every 24 hours
for 4 days, then 1 or 2 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for 24 days. Horses in the dose confirmation
portion of the study were sham dose treated
or received 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO, every 24
hours for 28 days. Gastric ulcer scores at the beginning
and end of the study were compared.
Results—Sham–dose-treated horses had significantly
higher ulcer scores than did horses treated with any
of the omeprazole dosages evaluated. Among horses
treated with omeprazole, there was no significant
interaction of dose (1 or 2 mg/kg) and loading dose;
therefore, the lowest effective dose (1 mg/kg) was
evaluated in the dose confirmation portion of the
study. In the dose confirmation study, 4 of 39 (10%)
sham–dose-treated horses remained ulcer free,
which was significantly different from the proportion
of horses (31/38 [82%]) receiving 1 mg of omeprazole/
kg that remained ulcer free.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that omeprazole administered at a dosage of
1 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 28 days was effective
for prevention of gastric ulcers in horses starting race
training. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1681–1684)
Objective—To compare efficacy and safety of paste formulations of firocoxib and phenylbutazone in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—253 client-owned horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.
Procedures—Horses were treated with firocoxib (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) or phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg [2 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 14 days. Physical examinations and lameness evaluations were performed prior to treatment and after 7 and 14 days. Clinical improvement was defined as a reduction of at least 1 lameness grade or a combined reduction of at least 3 points in scores for pain during manipulation or palpation, joint swelling, joint circumference, and range of motion.
Results—Proportion of horses clinically improved on day 14 for the firocoxib group (104/123 [84.6%]) was not significantly different from the proportion for the phenylbutazone group (103/119 [86.6%]). Proportion of horses that were improved on day 14 was significantly greater for horses treated with firocoxib than for horses treated with phenylbutazone with regard to score for pain on manipulation or palpation (P = 0.028), joint circumference score (P = 0.026), and range of motion score (P = 0.012), but not for overall lameness score or joint swelling score. No direct treatment-related adverse effects were detected during the study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that overall clinical efficacy of a paste formulation of firocoxib in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis was comparable to efficacy of a paste formulation of phenylbutazone.