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  • Author or Editor: Andrés M. Lopéz-Pérez x
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Abstract

Objective—To estimate the time of seroconversion to the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSNJV) in sentinel cattle of dairy herds located at high and low elevations in southern Mexico and to determine the factors associated with an increase in VSNJV transmission.

Animals—471 dairy cattle in 4 free-ranging dairy herds located at high and low elevations in southern Mexico.

Procedures—Serum samples from all cattle were screened by use of serum neutralization (SN) tests for antibodies against VSNJV. Cattle with SN titers < 1:20 were designated as sentinel cattle and tested every 10 weeks for seroconversion to VSNJV (SN titer ≥ 1:80). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compare the hazard for seroconversion between sentinel cattle located at high and low elevations and kept under similar management and nutritional conditions.

Results—Hazard of VSNJV seroconversion was significantly higher for sentinel cattle located at high elevations, compared with the hazard for sentinel cattle located at low elevations. Dairy cattle located at high elevations seroconverted to VSNJV more frequently during the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Seroconversion to VSNJV was more likely in dairy cattle in southern Mexico located at high elevations than in dairy cattle located at low elevations. These findings should contribute to understanding the dynamics of VSNJV infection in endemic areas and should be useful in the design of effective preventive and control strategies to decrease the impact of future VSV incursions.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an international and quintessential One Health problem. This paper synthesizes recent knowledge in One Health, binational RMSF concerns, and veterinary and human medical perspectives to this fatal, reemerging problem.

RMSF, a life-threatening tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, emerged during the first decade of the 21st century in impoverished communities in the southwestern US and northern Mexico. Lack of an index of suspicion, delay in diagnosis, and delayed initiation of antibiotic treatment contribute to fatality. Campaigns targeting dog neutering, restraint to residents’ properties, and on-dog and on-premises treatment with acaricides temporarily reduce prevalence but are often untenable economically. Contemporary Mexican RMSF is hyperendemic in small communities and cities, whereas epidemics occur in the western US primarily in small tribal communities. In in both locations, the epidemics are fueled by free-roaming dogs and massive brown dog tick populations. In the US, RMSF has a case fatality rate of 5% to 7%; among thousands of annual cases in Mexico, case fatality often exceeds 30%. , Numerous case patients in US border states have recent travel histories to northern Mexico.

Veterinarians and physicians should alert the public to RMSF risk, methods of prevention, and the importance of urgent treatment with doxycycline if symptomatic. One Health professionals contribute ideas to manage ticks and rickettsial disease and provide broad education for the public and medical professionals. Novel management approaches include vaccine development and deployment, acaricide resistance monitoring, and modeling to guide targeted dog population management and other interventions.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association