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  • Author or Editor: André R. Busato x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the possible association between facet joint geometry and intervertebral disk degeneration in German Shepherd Dogs.

Animals—25 German Shepherd Dogs and 11 control dogs of similar body weight and condition.

Procedure—Facet joint angles in the caudal portion of the lumbar region of the vertebral column (L5-S1) were measured by use of computed tomography, and the intervertebral discs were evaluated microscopically. The relationship between facet joint geometry and disk degeneration was evaluated by use of statistical methods.

Results—German Shepherd Dogs had significantly more facet joint tropism than control dogs, but an association with disk degeneration was not found. However, German Shepherd Dogs had a different facet joint conformation, with more sagittally oriented facet joints at L5-L6 and L6-L7 and a larger angle difference between the lumbar and lumbosacral facet joints, compared with control dogs.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A large difference between facet joint angles at L6-L7 and L7-S1 in German Shepherd Dogs may be associated with the frequent occurrence of lumbosacral disk degeneration in this breed. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:86f–90)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the association between the 3-dimensional (3-D) motion pattern of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the canine vertebral column and the morphology of vertebrae, facet joints, and intervertebral disks.

Sample Population—Vertebral columns of 9 German Shepherd Dogs and 16 dogs of other breeds with similar body weights and body conditions.

Procedure—Different morphometric parameters of the vertebral column were assessed by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomic conformation and the 3-D motion pattern were compared, and correlation coefficients were calculated.

Results—Total range of motion for flexion and extension was mainly associated with the facet joint angle, the facet joint angle difference between levels of the vertebral column in the transverse plane on CT images, disk height, and lever arm length.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Motion is a complex process that is influenced by the entire 3-D conformation of the lumbar portion of the vertebral column. In vivo dynamic measurements of the 3-D motion pattern of the lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column will be necessary to further assess biomechanics that could lead to disk degeneration in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the 3-dimensional motion pattern including main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs.

Animals—Vertebral columns of 9 German Shepherd Dogs (GSDs) and 16 dogs of other breeds with similar body weights and body conditions .

Procedure—Main and coupled motions of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column (L4 to S1) were determined by use of a testing apparatus that permitted precise application of known pure moments to the vertebral column. Motion was compared between GSDs and dogs of other breeds.

Results—All specimens had a similar motion pattern consisting of main motion and a certain amount of coupled motion including translation. Vertebral columns of GSDs had significantly less main motion in all directions than that of dogs of other breeds. Translation was similar in GSDs and dogs of other breeds and was smallest at the lumbosacral motion segment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that motion in the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column of dogs is complex and provided a basis for further studies evaluating abnormal vertebral columns. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:544–552)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research