Objective—To determine concentrations of excitatory
and inhibitory amino acids in CSF of a large number
of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy or genetic epilepsy
and to evaluate changes in CSF amino acid concentration
with regard to drug treatment and sex.
Animals—35 Labrador Retrievers with genetic
epilepsy (20 male and 15 female), 94 non-Labrador
Retrievers with idiopathic epilepsy (71 male and 23
female), and 20 control dogs (10 male and 10 female).
Procedure—Collection of CSF was performed > 72
hours after the occurrence of seizures. Cerebrospinal
fluid concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA),
glutamate (GLU), aspartate (ASP), serine, and glycine
were determined by use of high performance liquid
chromatography with electrochemical detection.
Results—CSF concentrations of GABA and GLU
were significantly lower in Labrador Retrievers
with genetic epilepsy (LR-group dogs) than in control-group dogs or in non-Labrador Retrievers with
idiopathic epilepsy (non–LR-group dogs). The GLU-to-GABA ratio was significantly higher in LR-group
dogs than in non–LR-group dogs. CSF concentrations
of GLU and ASP were significantly lower
when all dogs with epilepsy (non–LR- and LR-group
dogs combined) were compared with control-group dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A decrease in
CSF concentrations of GABA appears to play a role in
the pathogenesis of genetically determined epilepsy
in Labrador Retrievers. However, this decrease in CSF
concentrations of GABA may also be a consequence
of seizure activity. The GLU-to-GABA ratio may prove
to be a useful indicator of genetic epilepsy in Labrador
Retrievers. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1108–1113)
Objective—To compare severity of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy because of acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease treated with a combination of conventional analgesics and electroacupuncture (EAP) or with conventional analgesics alone.
Design—Controlled clinical trial.
Animals—15 dogs undergoing surgery because of acute thoracolumbar disk disease.
Procedures—Dogs were alternately assigned to treatment (conventional analgesics and adjunct EAP) and control (conventional analgesics alone) groups. Analgesic treatment was adjusted as necessary by the attending clinician, who was not aware of group assignment. Pain scores were assigned 1, 3, and 12 hours after surgery and every 12 hours thereafter for 72 hours by the same individual who performed acupuncture treatments.
Results—Total dose of fentanyl administered during the first 12 hours after surgery was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group, but dosages of analgesics administered from 12 through 72 hours after surgery did not differ between groups. Pain score was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group 36 hours after surgery, but did not differ significantly between groups at any other time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided equivocal evidence that adjunct EAP might provide some mild benefit in regard to severity of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy because of acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease.
Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of neurologic examination versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in localization of cervical disk herniation and evaluate the usefulness of withdrawal reflex testing in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—35 client-owned dogs with a single-level cervical disk herniation as determined via MRI.
Procedures—1 of 2 board-certified neurologists performed a complete neurologic examination in each dog. Clinical signs of a cervical lesion included evidence of neck pain and tetraparesis. The withdrawal reflex was used for neuroanatomic localization (C1-C5 or C6-T2). Agreement between results of neurologic and MRI examinations was determined.
Results—Agreement between neurologic and MRI diagnoses was 65.8%. In 11 dogs in which the lesion was clinically localized to the C6-T2 segment on the basis of a decreased withdrawal reflex in the forelimbs, MRI revealed an isolated C1-C5 disk lesion. In 1 dog, in which the lesion was suspected to be at the C1-C5 level, MRI revealed a C6-T2 lesion. Cranial cervical lesions were significantly associated with an incorrect neurologic diagnosis regarding site of the lesion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the withdrawal reflex in dogs with cervical disk herniation is not reliable for determining the affected site and that a decreased withdrawal reflex does not always indicate a lesion from C6 to T2.