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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records were reviewed for 12 cattle with septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint that were treated by use of facilitated ankylosis. Information on signalment, clinical signs, digit affected, radiographic findings, and type and duration of treatment were compiled. Owners were contacted for information about the convalescent period, reasons for culling, productivity, and outcome. Outcome was classified as successful or unsuccessful on the basis of lameness, growth pattern, and whether the cattle were subsequently productive. Cause of the septic arthritis was unknown in 9 of 12 (75%) cattle. Eleven of 12 (92%) cattle represented beef breeds. Cattle were lame for a mean of 5.3 weeks before admission. In 8 of 12 (67%) cattle, a trephine was used in the creation of an arthrostomy, the middle and distal phalanges were curetted, and the joint was lavaged with isotonic solution. A drill bit was used in 4 of 12 (33%) cattle to remove articular cartilage and facilitate ankylosis.

Convalescent period after discharge from the hospital was 1 to 7 months (mean, 4 months; median, 4 months). After that period, all cattle had an apparently normal gait. Eight of 12 (67%) cattle were maintained in their herd of origin. None of the cattle were culled because of lameness. Two of 12 (17%) cattle had a deformation of the affected digit. According to the criteria for successful outcome that were used in the study reported here, the success rate was 100%. Treatment of septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint by use of facilitated ankylosis is an alternative to digit amputation and is recommended to promote longevity and productivity.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 6-year-old Holstein cow was examined because of chronic lameness and swelling near the stifle joint of the left pelvic limb.

Clinical Findings—A mass was palpated in the soft tissues lateral to the proximal aspect of the left tibia. Multiple attempts to obtain a biopsy specimen of the mass resulted in acute compartment syndrome of the femoral compartment (tensor fasciae latae and biceps femoris muscles) and lateral tibial compartment (cranial tibial and peroneus tertius muscles) with associated sciatic nerve paralysis.

Treatment and Outcome—Surgical decompression via tensor fasciae latae and biceps femoris incision resolved the sciatic nerve paralysis. On the fifth day following surgery, the cow began to develop signs of increased respiratory effort. Thoracic radiography revealed a pulmonary metastatic micronodular pattern. The cow was euthanized because its condition deteriorated. Metastatic hemangiosarcoma was confirmed at necropsy, and the primary tumor was the mass that was lateral to the tibia and within the biceps femoris muscle.

Clinical Relevance—Hemangiosarcoma should be considered a differential diagnosis for lameness in cattle when no orthopedic cause can be identified. Close patient surveillance is strongly recommended in the event that a vascular tumor is present because catastrophic consequences are possible. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute compartment syndrome in a pelvic limb of a bovine patient and the only report of hemangiosarcoma in the skeletal muscle of cattle.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The effect of right paralumbar fossa exploratory celiotomy and omentopexy on peritoneal fluid constituents was studied in 22 adult dairy cows. Six cows were eliminated on the basis of physical examination findings (n = 2), surgical findings (n = 2), or inability to obtain a sufficient volume of peritoneal fluid (n = 2). Sixteen cattle had normal results of cbc and serum biochemical analysis, and a minimum of 1 ml of peritoneal fluid was obtained by abdominocentesis. Abdominocentesis was repeated on days 1, 2, and 6 after surgery. Statistical analysis for repeated measures was performed, using a significance level of P < 0.05. Stage of gestation was evaluated for interaction with time.

Mean total nucleated cell count was 3,200 cells/μl before surgery, was significantly increased 2 days after surgery (16,336 cells/μl), and continued to increase through day 6 (20,542 cells/μl). Mean polymorphonuclear cell count was 1,312 cells/μl before surgery and was significantly higher at 2 (11,043 cells/μl) and 6 (10,619 cells/μl) days after surgery. Mean lymphocyte count was 254 cells/μl before surgery and was significantly increased 2 days (1,911 cells/μl) after surgery. By day 6, lymphocyte numbers were similar to preoperative values. Mean mononuclear cell count was 770 cells/μl before surgery and was significantly increased on days 1 (3,084 cells/μl), 2 (3,285 cells/μl), and 6 (2,349 cells/μl) after surgery. Mean eosinophil numbers were 1,388 cells/μl before surgery and were significantly increased on day 6 (6,347 cells/μl) only. Interaction between time and stage of gestation was found only for specific gravity and total protein concentration. In general, specific gravity and total protein concentration increased after surgery (mean before surgery, 1.016 and 3.6 g/dl; mean after surgery, 1.021 and 5.6 g/dl). Left paralumbar fossa celiotomy performed 7 days after surgery did not reveal complications of repeated abdominocentesis, and pregnancy status was unchanged.

Peritoneal fluid constituents are highly variable after exploratory celiotomy and omentopexy in cattle. However, results of this study may provide a reference for interpretation of postoperative peritoneal fluid sample findings in cattle.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome associated with distal interphalangeal joint (DIJ) degenerative disease in calves.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—9 calves with degenerative disease of the DIJ.

Procedures—Medical records of calves with lameness for which the cause had been localized to the distal aspect of a limb but without evidence of trauma or sepsis were included. Signalment and results of physical, lameness, radiographic, and postmortem examinations were recorded. Outcomes of medical and surgical treatments were evaluated.

Results—All 9 calves had forelimb lameness (4 bilaterally). The medial digit was affected in 12 limbs and the lateral digit was affected in 9 limbs. Radiographic examination revealed bridging osteoproliferation along the abaxial and palmar aspects of affected DIJs (18/21), subchondral cyst-like lucencies (19/21), and sclerosis (16/21). The DIJ was resected in 3 calves (7 joints), resulting in resolution of lameness within 3 months. Medical management was attempted in 4 calves (6 joints), and 2 calves (6 joints) did not receive treatment; 5 calves had a normal stance within 5 months. Results of postmortem com-puted tomographic and histologic examination were in accordance with degenerative joint disease processes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Degenerative disease of the DIJ should be considered in calves with insidious, progressive forelimb lameness. Although the etiology of this process remains undetermined, results of radiographic, computed tomographic, and histologic examinations suggested an underlying developmental anomaly, such as osteochondrosis. Surgical treatment appeared promising on the basis of postop-erative resolution of lameness in all surgically treated calves.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify changes over time in relative expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) in synovial fluid from healthy calves and calves with experimentally induced septic arthritis.

Animals—12 Holstein calves.

Procedures—In 7 calves, Escherichia coli was injected in the right tarsal joint on day 1. Joint lavage was performed on day 2, and calves were treated with ceftiofur from days 2 through 21. Synovial fluid samples were collected on days 1 (before inoculation), 2 (before joint lavage), 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24. In the remaining 5 calves, joint lavage was performed on day 2 and synovial fluid samples were collected from the left tarsal joint. Relative expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was determined by means of gel zymography.

Results—On day 1, MMP-2 was detected in all synovial fluid samples but MMP-9 was not detected. In calves with septic arthritis, values for relative expression of MMP-9 monomer and dimer were significantly increased on days 2 through 20 and days 2 through 24, respectively, and relative expression of MMP-2 was significantly increased on days 3 through 20. There were significant linear associations between relative expression of the monomer and dimer forms of MMP-9 and between neutrophil count and relative expression of the MMP-9 monomer and dimer forms.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that relative expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2 increased in synovial fluid from calves with experimentally induced septic arthritis, with relative expression remaining high for several days after infection.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe clinical findings and diagnostic test results and identify potential prognostic indicators for calves with septic arthritis.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 64 calves with septic arthritis.

PROCEDURES The medical record database for a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify calves ≤ 6 months old that were treated for septic arthritis between 2009 and 2014. Data evaluated included signalment, history, physical examination and diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome. Descriptive data were generated, and calves were assigned to 2 groups (neonatal [≤ 28 days old] or postneonatal [29 to 180 days old]) on the basis of age at hospital admission for comparison purposes.

RESULTS 64 calves had 92 infected joints; 17 calves had polyarthritis. Carpal joints were most frequently affected followed by the stifle and tarsal joints. Forty-nine bacterial isolates were identified from synovial specimens for 38 calves, and the most commonly identified isolates were catalase-negative Streptococcus spp (n = 14) and Mycoplasma bovis (9). Calves in the neonatal group had a shorter interval between onset of clinical signs and hospitalization and were more likely to have an infected carpal joint than calves in the postneonatal group. Outcome was positive for 35 calves. Synovial fluid total nucleated cell count was positively associated with a positive outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that empirical antimicrobial treatment for calves with septic arthritis should target gram-positive catalase-negative cocci and M bovis and that synovial fluid total nucleated cell count might be a useful prognostic indicator.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prognostic value of lactate concentration measurements at admission in cattle with long-bone fractures.

ANIMALS

43 cattle with long-bone fractures between July 2016 and Dec 2018.

PROCEDURES

In this prospective cohort study, lactate concentration was measured in systemic venous blood and locally in capillary blood sampled from the fractured and contralateral limbs of cattle and assessed for outcome prediction. The cutoff value was determined by maximizing the Youden index from receiver-operating characteristic curves. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to verify whether higher lactate concentrations compared with the cutoff value were an independent risk factor for poor outcomes at 30 days or 3 years after admission.

RESULTS

Poor outcome was associated with higher capillary lactate concentration in the fractured limb (P < .001) and greater difference with systemic blood (P = .005). A cutoff value of lactate difference ≥ 2.4 mmol/L (sensitivity = 0.80; specificity = 0.965) between capillary lactate in the fractured limb and systemic blood was the best predictor of death ≤ 30 days after admission (P < .001). Multivariable analysis revealed that this cutoff value was an independent risk factor for 30-day and 3-year outcomes (P < .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Admission blood lactate concentration difference ≥ 2.4 mmol/L between the fractured limb and systemic blood was a robust and independent predictor of outcome for cattle of the present report. Lactate metabolism is locally impaired in fractured limbs of nonsurviving or at higher complication risk cattle, which may help identify patients at high risk for poor outcomes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical and clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and outcome for cattle that developed a retroperitoneal abscess (RA) following paralumbar fossa laparotomy (PFL).

ANIMALS

32 Holstein cows with RA.

PROCEDURES

The record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify cattle that were treated for an RA between January 1995 and March 2017. Cattle with an RA > 30 cm in diameter located 3.5 cm subjacent to the skin that had undergone a PFL < 3 months before examination for the RA were evaluated. Information extracted from the record of each cow included signalment; physical examination, clinicopathologic, and transabdominal ultrasonographic findings; treatments administered; and outcome. Milk production data were analyzed for the lactations before, during, and after RA treatment.

RESULTS

Common physical examination findings were rumen hypomotility, anorexia, and fever, and common clinicopathologic findings were anemia and neutrophilia. Abdominal palpation per rectum and transabdominal ultrasonography facilitated RA diagnosis and identification of the optimal location for drainage. Thirty of 32 cows underwent surgical drainage of the RA and prolonged administration of systemic antimicrobials. Two cows were euthanized because of concurrent peritonitis, including 1 that underwent surgical RA drainage. Thirty cows were discharged from the hospital alive, and most returned to their previous level of milk production.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although uncommon, RA should be suspected in cows that develop anorexia and fever within 3 months after PFL. Cows with RA often returned to their previous level of milk production, but treatment was generally prolonged and costly.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association