Objective—To evaluate physical methods for inducing death during the slaughter of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).
Animals—24 captive hatched-and-reared American alligators.
Procedures—Baseline electroencephalograms (EEGs) were obtained for awake and anesthetized alligators. Corneal reflex, spontaneous blinking, and EEGs were evaluated after severance of the spinal cord, severance of the spinal cord followed by pithing of the brain, application of a penetrating captive bolt, or application of a nonpenetrating captive bolt (6 alligators/group).
Results—Overall, alligators subjected to spinal cord severance alone differed from those subjected to the other techniques. Spinal cord severance alone resulted in postprocedure EEG power values greater than those in anesthetized alligators, whereas the postprocedure EEG power values were isoelectric for the other 3 techniques. Corneal reflex and spontaneous blinking were absent in all alligators immediately after application of a penetrating or nonpenetrating captive bolt. One of 6 alligators had a corneal reflex up to 1 minute after pithing, but all others within that group had immediate cessation of reflexes after pithing. Mean time to loss of spontaneous blinking and corneal reflex for alligators subjected to spinal cord severance alone was 18 minutes (range, 2 to 37 minutes) and 54 minutes (range, 34 to 99 minutes), respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Spinal cord severance followed by pithing of the brain and application of a penetrating or nonpenetrating captive bolt appeared to be humane and effective techniques for inducing death in American alligators, whereas spinal cord severance alone was not found to be an appropriate method.
PROCEDURES Dogs undergoing anesthetic procedures had 20-gauge catheters placed in both the superficial palmar arch and the contralateral dorsal pedal artery (group 1 [n = 20]) or the superficial palmar arch and median sacral artery (group 2 ). Dogs were positioned in dorsal recumbency, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP) were recorded for both arteries 4 times (2-minute interval between successive measurements). Dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency, and blood pressure measurements were repeated.
RESULTS Differences were detected between pressures measured at the 2 arterial sites in both groups. This was especially true for SAP measurements in group 1, in which hind limb measurements were a mean of 16.12 mm Hg higher than carpus measurements when dogs were in dorsal recumbency and 14.70 mm Hg higher than carpus measurements when dogs were in lateral recumbency. Also, there was significant dispersion about the mean for all SAP, DAP, and MAP measurements.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that arterial blood pressures may be dependent on anatomic location and body position. Because this may affect outcomes of studies conducted to validate indirect blood pressure measurement systems, care must be used when developing future studies or interpreting previous results.
Blood pressures were measured in dogs while they were awake and anesthetized with isoflurane. The OBP was recorded on a thoracic limb, and IBP was simultaneously recorded from the median caudal artery. Agreement between OBP and IBP was evaluated with the Bland-Altman method. Guidelines of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) were used for validation of the oscillometric device.
In awake dogs, mean bias of the oscillometric device was −11.12 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement [LOA], −61.14 to 38.90 mm Hg) for systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), 9.39 mm Hg (LOA, −28.26 to 47.04 mm Hg) for diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP), and −0.85 mm Hg (LOA, −40.54 to 38.84 mm Hg) for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). In anesthetized dogs, mean bias was −12.27 mm Hg (LOA, −47.36 to 22.82 mm Hg) for SAP, −3.92 mm Hg (LOA, −25.28 to 17.44 mm Hg) for DAP, and −7.89 mm Hg (LOA, −32.31 to 16.53 mm Hg) for MAP. The oscillometric device did not fulfill ACVIM guidelines for the validation of such devices.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Agreement between OBP and IBP results for awake and anesthetized dogs was poor. The oscillometric blood pressure device did not fulfill ACVIM guidelines for validation. Therefore, clinical use of this device cannot be recommended.
OBJECTIVE To compare blood pressure measured noninvasively with an oscillometric device that involved use of a novel conical cuff and a traditional cylindrical blood pressure cuff.
ANIMALS 17 adult hound-type dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized, and a 20-gauge, 1.5-inch catheter was inserted in the median sacral artery. The catheter was attached to a pressure transducer via fluid-filled noncompliant tubing, and direct blood pressure was recorded with a multifunction monitor. A specially fabricated conical cuff was placed on the antebrachium. Four sets of direct and indirect blood pressure measurements were simultaneously collected every 2 minutes. Four sets of measurements were then obtained by use of a cylindrical cuff.
RESULTS The cylindrical cuff met American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus guidelines for validation of indirect blood pressure measurements for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP). The conical cuff met the consensus guidelines for difference of paired measurements, SD, and percentages of measurements within 10 and 20 mm Hg of the value for the reference method, but it failed a correlation analysis. In addition, although bias for the conical cuff was less than that for the cylindrical cuff for SAP, MAP, and DAP measurements, the limits of agreement for the conical cuff were wider than those for the cylindrical cuff for SAP and MAP measurements.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE On the basis of results of this study, use of a conical cuff for oscillometric blood pressure measurement cannot be recommended.
Case Description—A healthy 6-year-old 28.5-kg (62.7-lb) spayed female Boxer undergoing surgical repair of a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament was inadvertently administered an overdose of morphine (1.3 mg/kg [0.59 mg/lb]) via subarachnoid injection.
Clinical Findings—50 minutes after administration of the overdose, mild multifocal myoclonic contractions became apparent at the level of the tail; the contractions migrated cranially and progressively increased in intensity and frequency during completion of the surgery.
Treatment and Outcome—The myoclonic contractions were refractory to treatment with midazolam, naloxone, phenobarbital, and pentobarbital; only atracurium (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IV) was effective in controlling the movements. The dog developed hypertension, dysphoria, hyperthermia, and hypercapnia. The dog remained anesthetized and ventilated mechanically; treatments included continuous rate IV infusions of propofol (1 mg/kg/h [0.45 mg/lb/h]), diazepam (0.25 mg/kg/h [0.11 mg/lb/h]), atracurium (0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg/h [0.045 to 0.14 mg/lb/h]), and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg/h [0.009 mg/lb/h]). Twenty-two hours after the overdose, the myoclonus was no longer present, and the dog was able to ventilate without mechanical assistance. The dog remained sedated until 60 hours after the overdose, at which time its mentation improved, including recognition of caregivers and response to voice commands. No neurologic abnormalities were detectable at discharge (approx 68 hours after the overdose) or at a recheck evaluation 1 week later.
Clinical Relevance—Although intrathecal administration of an overdose of morphine can be associated with major and potentially fatal complications, it is possible that affected dogs can completely recover with immediate treatment and extensive supportive care.
OBJECTIVE To use CT-derived measurements to create a ferret-specific formula for body surface area (BSA) to improve chemotherapeutic dosing.
ANIMALS 25 adult ferrets (19 live and 6 cadavers).
PROCEDURES Live subjects were weighed, and body measurements were obtained by each of 3 observers while ferrets were awake and anesthetized. Computed tomography was performed, and a 3-D surface model was constructed with open-source imaging software, from which BSA was estimated. The CT-derived values were compared with BSA calculated on the basis of the traditional tape method for 6 cadavers. To further validate CT analysis software, 11 geometric shapes were scanned and their CT-derived values compared with those calculated directly via geometric formulas. Agreement between methods of surface area estimation was assessed with linear regression. Ferret-specific formulas for BSA were determined with nonlinear regression models.
RESULTS Repeatability among the 3 observers was good for all measurements, but some measurements differed significantly between awake and anesthetized ferrets. Excellent agreement was found between measured versus CT-derived surface area of shapes, traditional tape– versus CT-derived BSA of ferret cadavers, and CT-derived BSA of cadavers with and without monitoring equipment. All surface area formulas performed relatively similarly.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT-derived BSA measurements of ferrets obtained via open-source imaging software were reliable. On the basis of study results, the recommended formula for BSA in ferrets would be 9.94 × (body weight)2/3; however, this represented a relatively minor difference from the feline-derived formula currently used by most practitioners and would result in little practical change in drug doses.
To investigate the effects of a priming dose of alfaxalone on the total anesthetic induction dose for and cardiorespiratory function of sedated healthy cats.
8 healthy adult cats.
For this crossover study, cats were sedated with dexmedetomidine and methadone administered IM. Cats next received a priming induction dose of alfaxalone (0.25 mg/kg, IV) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.025 mL/kg, IV) over 60 seconds and then an induction dose of alfaxalone (0.5 mg/kg/min, IV) until orotracheal intubation was achieved. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at baseline (immediately prior to priming agent administration), immediately after priming agent administration, after orotracheal intubation, and every 2 minutes until extubation. The total induction dose of alfaxalone was compared between the 2 priming agents.
Mean ± SD total anesthetic induction dose of alfaxalone was significantly lower when cats received a priming dose of alfaxalone (0.98 ± 0.28 mg/kg), compared with when cats received a priming dose of saline solution (1.41 ± 0.17 mg/kg). Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher when alfaxalone was used as the priming dose. No cats became apneic or had a hemoglobin oxygen saturation of < 90%. Expired volume per minute was not significantly different between the 2 priming agents.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Administration of a priming dose of alfaxalone to healthy sedated cats reduced the total dose of alfaxalone needed to achieve orotracheal intubation, maintained mean arterial blood pressure, and did not adversely impact the measured respiratory variables.
Objective—To assess the effects of dopamine and dobutamine on the blood pressure of isoflurane-anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Animals—8 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.
Procedures—A randomized crossover study was conducted. Each bird was anesthetized (anesthesia maintained by administration of 2.5% isoflurane in oxygen) and received 3 doses of each drug during a treatment period of 20 min/dose. Treatments were constant rate infusions (CRIs) of dobutamine (5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min) and dopamine (5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min). Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measurements, heart rate, esophageal temperature, and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 were recorded throughout the treatment periods.
Results—Mean ± SD of the systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures at time 0 (initiation of a CRI) were 132.9 ± 22.1 mm Hg, 116.9 ± 20.5 mm Hg, and 101.9 ± 22.0 mm Hg, respectively. Dopamine resulted in significantly higher values than did dobutamine for the measured variables, except for end-tidal partial pressure of CO2. Post hoc multiple comparisons revealed that the changes in arterial blood pressure were significantly different 4 to 7 minutes after initiation of a CRI. Overall, dopamine at rates of 7 and 10 μg/kg/min and dobutamine at a rate of 15 μg/kg/min caused the greatest increases in arterial blood pressure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dobutamine CRI at 5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min and dopamine CRI at 5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min may be useful in correcting severe hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots caused by anesthesia maintained with 2.5% isoflurane.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate agreement among diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia for scores determined by use of a simple descriptive scale (SDS) or a composite grading scale (CGS) for quality of recovery of horses from anesthesia and to investigate use of 3-axis accelerometry (3AA) for objective evaluation of recovery.
ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES Horses were fitted with a 3AA device and then were anesthetized. Eight diplomates evaluated recovery by use of an SDS, and 7 other diplomates evaluated recovery by use of a CGS. Agreement was tested with κ and AC1 statistics for the SDS and an ANOVA for the CGS. A library of mathematical models was used to map 3AA data against CGS scores.
RESULTS Agreement among diplomates using the SDS was slight (κ = 0.19; AC1 = 0.22). The CGS scores differed significantly among diplomates. Best fit of 3AA data against CGS scores yielded the following equation: RS = 9.998 × SG0.633 × ∑UG0.174, where RS is a horse's recovery score determined with 3AA, SG is acceleration of the successful attempt to stand, and ∑UG is the sum of accelerations of unsuccessful attempts to stand.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Subjective scoring of recovery of horses from anesthesia resulted in poor agreement among diplomates. Subjective scoring may lead to differences in conclusions about recovery quality; thus, there is a need for an objective scoring method. The 3AA system removed subjective bias in evaluations of recovery of horses and warrants further study.